Saint Joan was born on January 6, 1412, in the village of Domremy to
Jacques and Isabelle d’Arc. Joan was the youngest of their five children.
While growing up among the fields and pastures of her village, she was
called Jeannette but when she entered into her mission, her name was
changed to Jeanne, la Pucelle, or Joan, the Maid.
As a child she was taught domestic skills as well as her religion by her
mother. Joan would later say, “As for spinning and sewing, I fear no
woman in Rouen.” And again, “It was my mother alone who taught me
the ‘Our Father’ and ‘Hail Mary’ and the ‘Creed;’ and from none other
was I taught my faith.”
From her earliest of years Joan was known for her obedience to her
parents, religious fervor, goodness, unselfish generosity and kindness
toward her neighbors. Simonin Munier, one of Joan’s childhood friends,
tells how Joan had nursed him back to health when he was sick. Some of
her playmates teased her for being ‘too pious.’ Others remembered how
she would give up her bed to the homeless stranger who came to her
father’s door asking for shelter.
Joan was ‘like all the others’ in her village until her thirteenth year.
“When I was about thirteen, I received revelation from Our Lord by a
voice which told me to be good and attend church often and that God
would help me.” She stated that her ‘Voices’ were Saint Michael the
Archangel, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret. At first her ‘Voices’ came
to her two or three times a week but as the time for her mission drew
near (five years later), they visited her daily telling her to ‘Go into France’
to raise the siege of Orleans, conduct the Dauphin Charles to Reims for
his crowning and to drive the English from the land.
Joan went to the neighboring town of Vaucouleurs, which means Valley of many colors. There she spoke to the loyal
French governor by the name of Sir Robert de Baudricourt. After many rejections he finally agreed to send her to the
Dauphin who at the time was living at the castle of Chinon.
On the evening of February 23, 1429, she began her mission for God. In the company of six men, she rode through the
Gate of France on her way to Chinon. Joan reached this town on March 6th, but was not received by the Dauphin,
Charles, until the evening of March 9th.
After being accepted and approved by a Church council headed by the Archbishop of Reims, Joan was allowed to lead
the Dauphin’s army. This part of her career was meteoric. She entered Orleans on the evening of April 29th and by
May 8th the city had been freed. The Loire campaign started on June 9th and by June 19th the English were driven out
of the Loire valley. The march to Reims started on June 29th and by July 17th Charles was crowned King of France in
the cathedral of Reims.
From this time on, for reasons know only to King Charles, the king no longer valued Joan’s advice and guidance. She
had always told him that God had given her ‘a year and a little longer’ to accomplish His will but the king seemed to
take no notice of it. For almost a year he wasted what time remained to Joan, until in frustration, she left the court.
Her last campaign lasted from the middle of March until her capture at the town of Compiegne on May 23rd, 1430.
Her ‘year and a little longer’ was over.
Abandoned by her king and friends, she started her year of captivity. As a prisoner of the Burgundians she was treated
fairly but that all changed when on November 21st, 1430, she was handed over the English. How she survived their
harsh treatment of her is a miracle in itself.
The English not only wanted to kill Joan but they also wanted to discredit King Charles as a false king by having Joan
condemned by the Church as a witch and a heretic. To obtain this goal the English used those Church authorities
whom they knew to be favorable to them and the staunchest of these was Bishop Cauchon.
Joan’s trial of condemnation lasted from February 21st until May 23rd. She was finally burnt at the stake in Rouen’s
market square on May 30th, 1431.
Twenty-five years later the findings of Joan’s first trial were overturned and declared ‘null and void’ by another
Church court, who this time was favorable to King Charles. It was not until 1920 that the Church of Rome officially
declared Joan to be a saint. Her feast day is celebrated on May 30th.