Articles Of Confederation ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Adopted in congress in 1777 and ratified and in force in (1784?) Adopted for: a) unify in defense and war b) Foreign policy basic principle of articles for states to maintain control under central government assigned specific powers Organization of government: 1) one legislative house – unicameral legislature – passes laws 2) 2-7 delegates per state 3) 9 votes required to pass law 4) 13/ unanimous votes needed to amend Articles Powers: defense – army, navy, and treaties with Indians Foreign affairs – war Money – borrowing, spending, printing, determining value, coining Internal affairs – Judge disputes in special court hearings between states Enforcement laws determined by state therefore enforcement was selective to state desires and rarely done State restrictions – states could not: make war, treaties, international tariffs and coin money Duties of state – states must provide money/army? When requested by congress States must pay taxes based on land Weaknesses of Articles – I. trade regulation – congress had no power to regulate trade – done by states – caused: a) tariffs on imports and exports established by states b) states competed over control of waterways c) Foreign trade was diminishing; interstate trade was also stopping because of tariffs on each other making trade difficult???? II. Enforcement a) Central government included no enforcement/ executive branch b) Rules mostly ignored 1) taxes decided by congress based on land ( to be paid by states – didn’t pay – congress had no income and had to borrow- land basis bad for south – few people and lot of land 2) no income for army – regulated number soldiers per state not given – kept for own defense result – SHAY’S REBELLION – Begun by Daniel Shay – farmer in Massachusetts wanted to begin own government and revolted – Mass. didn’t have enough army to quell rebellion – soldiers also farmers and on other side – asked congress for help but appeal to no avail – states didn’t list4en to congress cuz didn’t care – continued for 6 months 3) Treaty of Paris not enforced – states refused to compensate loyalist for property lost and collect debts owed to British merchants – money all used for war effort Therefore England also violate and move troops to Northwest Territory (fur trade) Spain and England restrict trade on Mississippi and right of deposit in New Orleans III. Money – each state illegally made their own currency- congress could not prevent it – 14 forms of currency causing it to be worthless and inflation – made congress and states suffer – foreign countries unwilling to trade and lend money IV.
Passing laws – difficult to get 9 states to agree General Problems Economic – chaotic – severe post war depression, which usually lasts only short while, normal after war – England cut off trade with states – state power under Articles to regulate foreign trade? – Causes trade to lessen cuz difficult from expenses and tariffs and regulations – merchants and farmers who sell outside their state suffer from tariffs between states – small farmers fine southerners fine cuz Tabacco needed and special treatment and less regulation – first to pull pout of depression cuz of this and Planter Aristocracy had laws beneficial to them and their trade – different currencies in US discourages trade Inflation – prices and wages rise – helps debtors (pay back less), bad for bankers (receive back less, give more) – when inflation (like among farmers who are constantly in debt) = cheap currency Dear currency = stable currency = less inflation and prices stable – traders Political – increased power/ democracy in state government often causes chaos How many people have say Constitution – rules by which government operate – contains fundamental law (received idea from charters) States write new constitution with stronger democracy including Bill of Rights (things government cannot do) – executive branch (governor elected by people), legislative (bicameral elected by people) and judicial (courts appointed by governor – sometimes elected by people) Property qualifications – all lowered (lowest – highest = NE-M-S) – most remove religious qualifications Legislature given more power than governors Achievements under articles 1. US wins revolution 2. Northwest Ordinance – 1785 a) history – conflicting state claims – attempts made at resolution in 1784 and 1785 – speculators interested in selling land lobbied congress b) principle – territories ceded would be admitted as equal states c) terms – disputed territories ?? To US government – territories divided in to 5 futire states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinios, Michigan, Wisconsin d) conditions for admission: 5,000 male adults – congress appoint governor – proplr elect legislature with power to make laws 60,000 adult males – write constitution including Bill of Rights no slavery in any part of the territory Bibliography thank you shiffy for typing up these lovely notes. American History.