Electrolytes Electrolytes are liquids that conduct electricity. Most need to be dissolved into water or another solvent. Batterys have an electrolyte in them, either as a liquid or as a paste. Liquid electrolytes are used in electrolysis, electroplating, and other chemical processes. When electrolytes dissolve they release positive and negative ions.
The released ions carry electric charges between electrodes, in the solution. Cations (a positively charged ion that migrates to the cathode, a negative electrode) carry positive electric charges toward the cathode. Anions carry negative electric charges toward the anode, positive electrode. Strong electrolytes release many ions and conduct electricity well. Weak electrolytes, like acetic acid, dont release many ions and conduct poorly. Non electrolytes, like sugar, release no ions and form non conducting solutions.
A couple electrolytes conduct electricity as solids. These solid electrolytes have ions that can move and carry charges without solvents. There are two ways to be able to have ions that are able to conduct electricity, the dissociation of Ionic Compounds, and the Ionization of Polar Covalent Molecular Substances. The Dissociation of Ionic Compounds is where particles are ionically (electrically) bonded together. They already made out of cations and anions, but in their solid state the ions are locked into position in their crystal structure, and cant move around. When the ionic compound is dissolved into water the water molecules, which are polar,(having a positive and a negative end) will be attracted to the positive ions.
This attraction of different charges will create tension in the crystal and it will overcome the attice (the arrangement of molecules in a crystalline solid) energy keeping the crystal in place. Once this happens the cations will be surrounded by water molecules, and so will the anions. This is called the solution process. This makes a lower order of organization of the ions. The ions are now in a simpler form so they have higher mobility, and can carry electrical particles to conduct electricity. Salts that are completely dissolvable in water are usually strong electrolytes.
The salts that are barely dissolvable are weak. The strength of an electrolyte is measured by its ability to conduct electricity. Theres also the way of Ionization of Polar Covalent Molecular Substances. Polar molecular substances are substances whose atoms are co-valently bonded. Each molecule has a net molecular dipole moment (the product of the distance between two poles of a dipole and the magnitude or either pole) that is made because of the dipole moments of the bonds do not cancel each other out.
This dipole moment makes each dipole having a positive and negative end to the molecule. If the molecules are small enough, polar water molecules can line up around the polar molecules attracted to the negative ends and vise versa. This attraction is called intermolecular force, This force can overcome the dissociation energy of a bond within the polar molecule. The dissociation energy is the least amount of energy needed to break a bond between two atoms. If this happens then the polar molecule will fragment with the broken bond.
This will make ions where there wasnt any to begin with. This is called ionization, and will end up with ions in the molecule promoting electrical current flow. If the bonds within the molecule are easier to break by the water molecules then the degree of ionization will be greater. More current will be conducted. These are strong electrolytes. Electrolytes are needed for the regulation of body fluids, and the transmission of electrical impulses.
They are lost through perspiration, and have to be replaced. There is no daily recommendation because theyre so abundant its easy to get enough.