.. nto which persons are placed by either objective criteria, subjective criteria, self-identification, or mixed criteria. Depending upon the theory of social stratification that is proposed, class can be defined in terms of objective criteria (for example income, wealth, position), subjective criteria (solidarity in terms of social or economic interests; or self-identification with some group) or mixed criteria (for example, evaluation by others in society in terms of esteem or some other scale of value). Depending upon the theory of social structure that is proposed, class can be defined in terms of a group that is struggling together to change the structure; or statistically in terms of the position or power of the group concerning the operations of the societal causation that is proposed, class can embrace a difference defined terms of a single criterion or of some combination of set of criteria.” Class deals with political economy relations external and internal in the black society. The criteria of self-identification and wealth, income social structure, and their roles in the economy, and the class ranking of the group or what political party one group might stand behind.

We can see in this definition how the black race is singled out. Anything that deals with income, wealth and positioning blacks know that they set at the bottom of all these categories. Then if we look at what the middle and lower classes have evolved in it would poverty, crime, drug abuse, illegitament children, and a continuing failure in education. Blacks seem to one of the only groups who cant get it together. Because immigrants from Asia and India seem to do exceptionally well in academics and economically. It seems that white America has open arms of hostility for these other groups and the underclass black is left to fin for them selves. In the definition of class boundaries are never brought up. But in “America” there is not suppose to be boundaries.

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Anyone can move up and down the ladder of success. Although, different classes have over lapping characteristics for example consumer goods, political views, religion, and goals and dreams, plus there is variety with in a class. The book uses the example of a core surrounded by fringes, which are attached to a core. In this definition I ask can the fringes leave this and attach to another core? Than can a fringe becomes a core? Better yet can a black homeless man or woman start a new computer monopoly and buy out Microsoft one day? I think that this is a bit to far fetch for anyone to do. But growing up you were told that you can be anything that you want to be, should your parents have said but only if you are not black? Now that we know how to class black people, we can move forward and show deeper into the prescription for the falling poor black race. For my third prospective I use the text from Race and Class U.S.

the Black poor and the politics of expendability. This book was published in 1996 and the words are hitting home more than ever. Barbara Ramsby the writer of this chapter, says that there was two major US political parties that combined for a “campaign of terror against poor and working class people, especially poor Black and brown people.” For more than two generations the welfare state as we know it is being eradicated. Unemployment and underemployment rate has shot right off the charts. The aid from the government is being cut so rapidly and on such a large scale that more poor and middle class working people will be out on the streets. “Thirty per cent of the manufacturing jobs eliminated by downsizing in 1990 and 1991 were held by blacks.

This economic trend, which has persisted for more than a decade with little abatement, means that there now exists a class of permanently unemployed men and women are essentially surplus labuorers in an increasingly streamlined economy. These are the men and women whom social scientists condescendingly refer to as the Black underclass. There have been bills past that are to effect the poor blacks the most the Welfare Bill and the Crime Bill. The welfare bill places a new degree of terrorism on single black mothers. You can only receive welfare for five years in your entire lifetime. Mothers are penalized if they have another child while on welfare.

Colleges and Universities are closing their doors to exclude the poor. Funding has been cut for job training to the poor, in a shrinking job market already. Analysts estimate that 2.6 million people, including 1.1 million children will be under the poverty line by the year 2000, just 39 more days away. The Crime Bill has a three strikes rule for provision for violent offenders treats a high-level drug offense like a foul ball and this puts you away for life. The new death penalty can be applied to large-scale drug importers, sellers, manufacturers or cultivators even if no one is killed. This is basically for young black dope dealers.

The system makes it seem as if poverty is the fault of the person and not poverty itself. The attempt to reduce births out of wedlock and to get people off welfare puts a higher standard of moral on the poor than the people and persons whom enforce and made this system. While the rich stay rich and set back and call the lower classes lazy, the poor work even harder to keep food on their tables. “In the past, when new technologies have replaced workers in a given sector, new sectors have always emerged to absorb the displaced laborers. Today all three of the traditional sectors of the economy agriculture, manufacturing, and service are experiencing technological displacement. The only new sector emerging is the knowledge sector.

Made up of a small elite of entrepreneurs, scientists, technicians, computer programmers, educators and consultants.” The black underclass and displaced Negro are the words that come to mind when I read this. This is permanent unemployment for blacks. Even jobs in fast food and other service sector jobs are becoming harder to come by. The Reagan administration in the 1980s began to make unions a thing of the past. This was another place were black could get a good paying job with benefits.

While money for reform programs are being cut the prison budget have grown at unbelievable rates. In Michigan led cuts for services for the poor it has a $200 million dollar building project. In Missouri $94 million spent and just $50 million in Maryland on new prison projects. This is supposed to be the answer for the prison being over crowded. Its like the Doritos commercial you keep eating we will make more.

You blacks keep going to jail we will build more. In all three books we can see that there is a serious problem in the way the system is set up, aspecially for working class black people. There was a time when the systems depended of the poor and lower middle class to do all the things that the upper class didnt want to do. The poor and lower class also depended on the system so that the unfortunate could have something to fall back on. With the wide spread of the web and other technologies the black worker has be come useless and increasingly more or under the poverty line. For this gap to at the least slow down and let some catch up a lot of reforms need to take place. First in the way blacks think, they must learn and know this system doesnt owe them anything.

Also they must stop being so dependent on the government system. For this to happen there has to be a change in the education of young inner city black youth, school reform is greatly needed. More teachers with the right training and education need to teach these kids. The schools should have the right to paddle kids for doing wrong in or around the schools, and do it in front of his or her pears. Parents should be called if a student misses class or homework, so the parent has more inter action and knowledge of what is going on with their child.

This should go on until the student is in college or some sort of technical training. Education should not stop just with the black youth; the black men and women also need the schooling and training. We must set examples for the children, so we must educate the mothers and fathers and the neighbors of these children. Next issue would the lack of fathers in the household. We are in need of a better system to find died beat dads. All of the little holes and gaps that they can escape threw need to be closed.

Fathers should have to spend time with their child. Next the prison system is losing and forgetting about a large number of black males and females. The system that is in place now is not working, it just helps make the gap between the races larger. We dont need more prison or better prisons we need more reform and better reform. Make it mandatory for en-mates to spend time in the library, and to take up some kind of trade or skill on the inside. Make en-mates work out in a field or some other hard labor job, even if it is just digging a 6 foot hole everyday and filling back up. Let prisoners do some of the jobs that are being sent over seas like the making of clothes and shoes. This way the working class is not paying as much for the prisoners to live in a 6 by 6.

This also gives them less time to do drugs or to kill educating that is reform. Make jail the last place you want go. Make it so bad that when a person does get out that he or she thinks before they do anything and say I am not going back and I mean that. Next our government system needs to look at. Funding for programs that give inner city youth more places to go for free instead of the street corners. More places that parents can take their children that dont cost an arm and a leg.

More events that a geared toward getting the attention of young black people. More block parties, neighborhood gardens, and have local DJ and rap contests. The pro-athletes need to get out in streets of the ghettos. At public schools let there be give always for grades and attendance tickets to football, basketball and baseball games. At the halftime show let these kids be announced and get on the court or field.

Make them fill like they have really done some thing special. Then at the end of the school year the pick two students in different categories to get to set in one of the box sets or set on the bench. These are just a few things to help the growing problem in the United States.


Globalization is the process by which a business or company becomes international or starts to operate on an international level. Globalization does not benefit the majority of the worlds population, including Canadians, and is slowly growing to increasingly deadly proportions. It benefits the wealthy, which are but a minority in comparison to the rest of the population, and leaves the impoverished ones out of the loop. The unsteady flow of invisible money running in and out of countries has our markets operating like roller coasters. Globalization renders our government powerless and leaves them at the mercy of foreign investors. The negative effects of globalization far outweigh and short term gains.
As far back as recorded history can go there are generations upon generations of books filled with facts showing the strength of Nation states and their impact on the stability of the world. The cultural, economical and governmental power exerted by nations as a whole shows just how influential they really are. Conflicting ideologies have both resulted in the most horrifying human catastrophes ever imagined as well as harmonious peace. With the world changing ever so rapidly new theories on where we as a globe are heading enter the minds of academic scholars everyday. One issue of particular interest to these well-educated people is Globalization; this is basically the large Multi Nationals quest for bigger and broader markets. Many think that with the rapid expansion of corporations to larger market places will make nationhood completely irrelevant. Take the peoples republic of China for example, China has one of the most rapidly expanding economies seen in years and considering that Chinese make up one fifth of the population of the world it will be a prime target for Multi nationals in the near future. It is thought that with this shift of expanding markets in the east two things could happen; one, the world regains some of the stability it once had in the past, because nations will want to keep good relations with trading partners to maximize profits, or two, unbelievable as it sounds the world becomes even more disorganized because the fight to clench the trade unbalances in the favor of a particular trading block causes war. If Globalization is really a threat then as different as the results are one must happen.
On the flip side of issue there is always the thought I agree with, Globalization is merely hype and to think of Multi nationals replacing nations is ludicrous. There is about sixty three trillion dollars worth of trade going on in the world with little if any help to the multi nationals. The economic value of corporate trading does not measure close to the magnitude of intra-governmental trading. The end of nation-states doesnt seem apparent, every once in while a nation surrenders its territory and the overpowering country takes complete control over its victim. Even through the smaller nation no longer exists; there is still great nationalism in the larger country. My point is there isnt much evidence showing the end of nationalism because with every nation that falls there is always another one picking it up. On a global level there is no collapse of the nation state in the face of globalization. In fact nation states have not suffered anything nearly as devastating as the fall of empires such as the Ottomans and Austro-Hungarians. There is not one inch of territory once belonging to these empires left in Europe. There is no longer an Austro-Hungarian imperial army, police or university. Everything once belonging to these once ungodly sized empires has been succeeded by nation-states that conquered all their territory.
Volatile markets could be yet another price we have to pay for globalization. Sixty three trillion dollars is jumping in and out of countries world wide every year. This three trillion dollar a day flow in and out of countries is based on trade rumors. It is this instability that is causing the economic crisis in Africa right now. As companies become more international in scope, they are free to move operations quickly from country to country based on local conditions, greatly improving their power against local governments, businesses and workers. This in turn severely reduces government regulation of trade, investment, labor, health and safety, and the environment. Government spending would indeed be slashed, especially in the areas of social services. Devalue the currency in order to make exports more attractive and weaken labor to make wages competitive.
The North American Free Trade Agreement is a non-customs free trade association between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. NAFTA allows for goods to be traded freely between its member states with only minimal tariffs and restrictions. However, many feel that this is not in the best interest of our nation. For example, Ex-President Clinton requested fast track authority to negotiate an expansion of NAFTA. Congress refused Clintons request, and without a definitive vote on his treaty, he could not further negotiate an increase of free trade in North America. The reason for political opposition to free trade stems from the implications it has for the sovereignty of the United States.
The distribution of wealth both personal and corporate is not as diverse as it should be. With that in mind we have to take the phase money is the root of all evil into consideration. Whenever a state agrees to loosen its regulations, it relinquishes some power over international relations. Thus, the increased globalization resulting from freer trade is a source of political turmoil. Many American politicians are against free trade and globalization because it results in increased power for the international economy and lessened power of the sovereign state. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is not only the receiver of political condemnation, but it is also the target of trade unionists and environmentalists. The WTO does not explicitly outline rules for human rights or the environment. Consequently, as the world becomes increasingly globalized through free trade, many are concerned about the ramifications this may have on laborers and the environment. The rules of The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) include a restriction of slave labor however, they make no mention of child labor or sweatshop conditions. In addition, there are no international restrictions on production emissions or wastes that may have a harmful impact on the global environment. These issues were the cause of protest a couple of years ago in Seattle. Demonstrators were outraged that the WTO, the organization that orchestrates international free trade, seemingly has no concern for people.
Corporations are globalizing not only to reduce production costs, but also to expand markets, evade tax, acquire knowledge and resources, and protect themselves against currency fluctuations and other risks. The driving force of the marketplace is competition: sales go to the company who offers the lowest price. This alone is not a set process as prices are lower and there is improved efficiency in production. But when corporations and governments lower costs by reducing environmental protection, wages, salaries, health care and education, the result can be a decrease in the level of environmental, labor and social conditions.
All the controversy surrounding globalization and its factors forces us to ask, is free trade good or bad? Well, it depends on each persons perspective. Free trade leads to globalization, and globalization leads to many changes in our world. Many see free trade as an opportunity for all states to thrive through involvement in the global economy. Others regard globalization with skepticism, believing it is detrimental to a nations sovereignty and economic prosperity. Still, others object to the ramifications free trade may have on laborers and the environment. The free trade phenomenon remains an enigma whose solution evades people and politicians alike.