Sir Isaac Newton (scientist) while working on the telescope noticed that some light (white) light is broken into different colors when it passed through a prism. This prism is a simple triangular glass object that has the ability to separate light rays into individual colors. Look at 7.2 on reference sheet for example.
Many insects have a good sense of color. They are insensitive to red, but sensitive to yellow, green, blue, and into ultra-violet. Which is invisible to man. Some insects are able to see into the ultra-violet, and beyond into frequencies approaching x-rays.
Fish either ignore the color red, or are really attracted to it. Because in water red radiation is quickly absorbed whereas blue and violet are not.
They have excellent color vision, particularly of the color red. Bird migration is said to be influenced by the length of day. To increase egg production in chicken and ducks extra light is often used to supplement the duration of daylight.