4thHIS 311 SEPT 24
-1861- Civil War begins
-Nov.-dec “TRENT” incident
-1862-64-“Alabama” depredations
-Oct.-St. Alban’s rd.

-1865- Reciprocity Tr. denounced
-1866- Fenian Invasion
-sub themes
-public opinion ; foreign policy
-xtrnl coincide w/ intrnl issues
-colonies and their costs
-Can and US are parallel
-major events, trade are shared
-civil society devl’p same way
-culture is same exc. QUE, Louisiana certain parts speak french
-1820 on – immersed in issue of slavery. (afro-american) in Brit Col.

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-“Mason-Dixon line” separates north: anti-slavery, south: legal
– 1833: abolit’n of slavery in BR colonies and empire
-Can had slavery but abolished at same time as North US.

-Slavery is great int’l cost.

-Slavery is an Int’l issue that begins to greatly affect national issue
-U.S. can’t agree on slavery
-North feared that south would take over and imply slavery
-this contreversy spilled onto Can
-Dec 1860 -61: 11 southern states leave union.

-N. goes to war vs. S to bring them back into the union
– not involved in war
-S aka: Confederate States may become 3rd country in NA
– ratio of pop. US:Can = 11:1
-Can thinks good opportunity if 3rd country in NA: no more under to US
-most Cand’n believe that slavery is evil. So most agree w/ N
– Cand’s divided into N and S
-Eastern Canada gets many newspapers: divided b/w conservatives who agree
with N and liberals siding w/ S
-Liberals (S ) are fighting for freedom to do whatever . -Conservatives
say (S ) are barberic animals and north must triumph.

CANADA: inlists in war because:
1. belief in cause of anti-slavery
2. Boredom
3. Money – army is occupation
can pay someone to take your place
4. Kidnapping-Can’s kidnapped force to join US army
-Canada is neutral, not favour one
-not sovereign states.

-south is not really separate yet, just rebellious.

-“key to winning is to have foreign intervention.”
-hoping that S would be recognized as coutnry and N should back down.

-mixed feelings re US
-public opinion: indifferent or hate
-2 confeder8 diplomats sent to BRIT on The TRENT steamship. Thru neutral

-when ship sailed near Nrthn coast diplomats were arrested & set to jail.

-Ld. Palmerston – BR. – disruption of human rights, demands release of 2
-Br mobilizes its best army taken to Nova Scotia ready to deploy into US
-lincoln releases 2 confederates.

-sending army to Can a reminider that colonies are expensive
-if americans were to attack, Br could only defend Halifax not Mon nor TO.

-empire costly, and ungr8ful, Can does not wnat to help Br defend
2 PARTIES in gov’t are = in power
-invites BR to join Can to confederation
-starts 1864 – spring 1866
-agree to form larger confederation.

-way for Br to retract their expenditure on Can. so they support
-not popular in Nova Scotia
-Br ignored Nova Scotians
-Br brot down New Bruns anti confederation party.

-Br helped Can a lot for confdr8t’n
-Can raising tariffs on US
-oct. 1864 – Montreal Can’s go St. Alban’s , Vermont and robbed a bank
-Montrealers arrested and judge let the robbers go w/ the money
1.US mad, if another incident US army would march into Can
2. Mar. 17, 1867 – denounces Reciprocity Treaty.

-Hostility from US gov’t
– part of Br.

-catholic vs. protestants
-1840’s famine, migration to US , Can, Aus: Protestants bitter to Br.

-US and Can don’t like immigration
-Ire assimil8 to Can political system
– protestants in US want revenge on Br but far away so no hard backlash.

-use Irish army veterans to attack Can to revenge on Br
-Can ships men to point of attack
-1866, June the Fenians invaded CAn from Buffalo,
-US gov’t late awareness: cut-off Fenians and laid down arms
-costly for Can to ship men
-the Fenian danger pushes Can to form confederation.

-July 1st 1867 fedaration of ON QUE
not B.C. NS., NB
1. Public opinion influences national and international decisions
2. colonies and its costs
3. Can is a product of external influences. Can was pushed together
because of US threat.

HIS 311 SEPT 26
Canada in 1867
-3.5 million population resided mainly in ON ; QU
-4 provinces
-2 national parties
1. Conservatives
-Macdonald 1867-73
-Mackenzie 1873-78
-Macdonald 1878-91
-Can: NS, NB, ON, QU
-30-31% spoke Fr. living in Qu
-QU had 80% french speaking
-60% p rotestant, 40% Catholics
-up to today, no prime minister have been anything else but Lib or Con
-Cabinet, Gov’t: hard fought elections
Macdonald 1815-?: ON
-knighted by Queen Victoria
-saw that Can should accept Eng/Fr.

-Liberal party
-colonial period therefore colonial position
-loyal to both Br and local residents.

-Br. crucial to confederation of Can
-Dec. 1869 purchase of hudson bay Company land funded by Br.

-1871: B.C. joins Can
-B.C.:sense ofbeing outsiders.

-1873 – PEI joins Can because PEI was flat broke
-Newfoundland did not join
-1880 -islands above Hudson bay, Brit. bought them for Canada
1. Mantoba
2. Saskatchewan
-A country reflects its inhabitants
-after 1815 Br immigration very high
-gr8est economy, London ctr of eco activity
-Can depended on Br. eco and political
-Br didn’t favour Can related to trade
-Br investement need to come into Can
-1870 last time that Br.’s army stepped for Canadian
-Esquimalt and Halifax are fortress send canadians to protect a
-1871: Canada and US fight;
1. recoprictytreaty, denoucned by: US
2. American civil war,
1 Fenian invasion
-US don’t want reciprociity
-tariffs designed to protect from other foreign company
-tariff was governed by congress
-signed by prez
-US Prez are weak
-the alabama a ship built in Br. for confederate S states but ship was
crappy when sent to states from Br ship fell apart.

-Gen. Sumner wants reimbursement
Gen Ulysses S. Grant
-Sec. of State – Hamilton Fish
comes from NewYork
-once Rec Tr. done so Amercan can’t fish in Can.

-Canada not a sovereign state.

-1871: British Gov’t appt 3 men
to talk with US
-1st 2 men are Br 3rd is Macdonald
-Macd there to put in Can’s interest
-want compensation for Fenian but US does get to
-freetrade in fish Can’s can fish in USand viceversa
-US agree to an arbitration
1877 – arbitrator got 1 mill for Can. fisheries.USnot happy
-arbritation hapen on a technical dispute
-arbit useful tool for
-grbrit w/drawing its troops fear US
-Can sliping to arbitration: appeal to int’l law
-promote in’tl law
-US paid for Can fisheries
Oct. 1-His 311
=position paper is due two weeks after day of tutorial
=Sir John A Macdonald conservatives
=Opposition Sir Alexander Mackenzie
-Edward Blake
1. period of eco dissappointment
-reflceting int’l eco conditions were mediocre. only in end of 1890’s did
economy pick up
2.emmigration-can’d leaving for US
-Can’d 3rd largest foreign born group in US
-increase contacts b.w two countries
-not in terms of pol’cs but it alleviates some tension towards Can
-states feel like Can is not a threat
-one quarrel after another
-after 1872-3, most Can exports go to Br., Can’s eco depended on xports
-US develops high tarrif to protect US products
-most good from Can have high tarrifs except for necessities in US
-2 Can parties are interchangeable
-sum Can believe that free trade was the best
-but some Can said that Can could never be great, need jobs in Can so had
to estb industries that sell to Can mrkt.

– but mrkts are occupied by foreign industries
-so we have to protect Can industry.

-haveto support new industry
-PROB: indstry almost never grow up
-Can’d have contest b/w supporters for free trade andfor protection
-free trade: tarriffs from small to 0…….

-SOLVE: by 1870’s most countries adopting protection.

-mid 1870’s Can was depressed all emmigrating to US
-National budget was the answer: Sir Richard Cartwright minister of
finance -convinced free-trader.w. mackenzie decided liberal policy
=”National Policy”
-Macdonald want both (industrial policy) protection and free-trade
-Macdonald becums PM
-1879 tarrifs very high, almost as high as the US tarrifs.

-encouraged to hire Can worker to promote domestic products
-promote local Canadian labour
-force US to make ‘branch plants” to make same products far away from
mother firm
-Indstries are favouring of national policy, but not farmers
-desinged to protected industries
-DOES NOT look after export policy
-creates one sector of eco that get huge support but agricultre is not
-Can’d farmers are having to buy expensive goods at domestic high price but
can sell own product at world price
-this creates a division, also works regionally
-to encourage a sense of regional greements
-predicts results
-at no point qas Can’d gov’t prepared to throw out protection and
substitute freetrade
-but US not interested in Freetrade
-North Atlantic Tr of washingtn 1871
-US not happy with the Tr.

-1885 US renounces the treaty
-by 1880’s not so much fishing but more about landing in ports to stock
suplies and fish outside the area owned by Canada
-US wants fishing outside of brders of Canada but still needed support from
Cans for supplies
-therefore another negotiation
-Br sent 2 and Can sent 1 delegates
-US has democratic party, much nicer
-Joe Chamberlain- 1st rank Br. politician and West coordinate position with
-more on Can’s interests reather than Br. orders
-JC makes treaty: divided fisheries in same way as in 1871
-“modus vivendi of 1888
-US senate rejects Tr.

-Cans and US fish dispute resolved “under the table and peace in east
-fur trade , 2 types
1. aleutians islands (on land ) sealing
2. Pelagic (high seas) dealing
-US gov’t that say that they own whole Bearing sea
-therefore: Arbritation b.w Can and US
-limitsff claims of US ownership
-Can receives half mill $ for sealing vessels
-arbritation is good for Can
-Bearing Sea Arbitration:
-evolved Can US relationship
signifies that US is willingto accept arbitration b.w Can and Br.

-Macd wanted to link reciprocity andfish and seal
-can’d liberal party chooses Wilfrid Laurier – Fr.Can
-opposed to confederetion
-Can divided b.w catholics and b/w FrCa and EnCa
-told that Can’s whould go to unrestricted reciprocity (trade b/w two
countries) or Comercial Union (same tarrifs for exprts)
-Lau believed that Unrestricted Policy is way to go
-but Macd proclaims that Lau wants to hand Can to US
-uses patriotic hand to win election vs. livberals
Oct 3 History 311
-Laurier 1841-1919
–OD Skelton -biography of Wilfrid Larier, sympathetic towards WL
–J.W. Dafoe – contradictions of Laurier’s personality
–Joe Schull
–H. Blair Neatby
–Richard Clippingdale:
-Elections: 1896, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1911
-predominance in Cdn cities due to tarrif policy in manufacturers
– also in QU foundation stone of conservatives based in QU
-divide protestant and catholics further division in Cath b/w Eng & Fr
-usual division b/w Fr & Eng in Cda
-very public debate
-difficult not impossible to agree from each racial or religious side
-Fr protetastant wrote: The race question in Cda.

– Cdn nat’nal politics organized to bridge the bounderies.

-“Omnibus Party”
-Cda has powerful system
-6th generation of Laurier in QU.

-tried to bridge the gap b/w Fr and Eng.

-represent a minority
-defensive in the QU
-protestant were enemy in mind of catholic chrch
=EN spoken everywhere in Cda.

-cath church is an int’l factor
-Pope had influence in int’l affairs
-Pope is a monarch, vatican is a country
-centre of Italy was Papal state
-1870: Italy was unified against Pope wishes
-Pope called for help in Fr-cath QU and they answered and helped them
-Zouaves: uniform
-IR : also be int’l movement according to public opinion
-IR not only politics
-Qu felt that they had Int’l call of duty
-Int’l call of Cath’ism, QU felt had to serve QU. ppl not bounded by
borders of Qu. transcended faith into beyond borders of Canada.

-Cath of QU is not uniform, there is tendency to see Fr-Can as monolith
-Church is imp, large organization
-falles into two hands:
1. Conservative: strict, sees Cath interest as separate from protestant.

-merged with Eng/Can to do business
2. Liberals: more accepting of 19th C,
accepting of democratic forms, idea of coperation w/ the Eng
3. minority that defines Fr/Cath: against Cath church but speak Fr.

-very hard to go against Cath-ism in Qu
-have to believe in the empire
-1860’s empire’s popularity slowly declining
-to be Cdn have to support Cda; tend to be nationalistic
-1870’s-royals becoming popular again. bombarded with royal paraphanelia,
see symbols of might and power
-US becoming stronger than BR
-GER now united, army is mightiest
-BR’s place not unchanllenged & margin of superiority is diminishing
-once thought that BR power could be mobilized in little time; BUT after
1870, BR politicians say that it might not be true, very worried
-imperialsim as a variety of nationalism
-this has little appeal to FR-QU
-Cda is acceptable as long as it doesn’t bother the Fr/Qu
-gov’t responsibilities: military, trade policy , transportation (roads,
highways), post office; but these are cheap
-so feds don’t control income taxes, social welfare…

-welfare was handled by the cath church
-autonomy in various spheres of
-catholic imperialism was +ve, good idea
-Cda’s relation to Br empire +’ve
-Br. demands little but provide many psychic benefits
=BR is democracy
-every male can vote -> universal
-imperialists were spread across Br.

-great antagonist
-started out as republican, liberal politician
-believed in united Br empire
-“Br could still be great if she mobilizes empire, i.e. Cda, Aus, New
Zealand, South Africa ->wanted: “GREATER BRITAIN”
-but he was speaking out of fear of & worried about weakness of declining
BR strength in int’l relations.

-likes Br investors, politicians
-sees that Cda can benefit from one large colony
-believes that liberty and equality are good and can be applied to Cda
especially FR & BR relations
-saw Cda as a “developing” place, will be greater someday, eventually
-is contious of Cda’s present weakness,
-was realistic
-concludes that need BR involvement thru investment
-Cda does not need complication, not to be involved in foreign xpdt’n
-Laurier sees BR in of view of his generation which is 1860’s-70’s where BR
was still powerful and self-sufficient he will have this POV for his entire
-wouldn’t believe Chamberlain when he asks Cda for help.

-Lau will continue believing that Br. is mighty state so somewhat
unintentionally brushes off Br for aid
-Cham says that Laurier does not like Br. they think he is anti-Br. FALSE.

-Br. went as far as saying Laurier has “republican” beliefs. FALSE
-compromise guarding Laurier’s step into office
1. Anti-reciprocity and Free-trade
-she learned that reciprocity not good in Southeastern Canada
(manufacturing capital)
-1893: Laurier called the 1st National Liberal Convention: What should be
our policy be?
-promise to ease up on tarrifs that afflict farmers, but not exactly free-
trade nor reciprocity; enough to calm the nerves of Eng-Cdns
2. Manitoba Schools ?
-Manitobans were originally from southeastern Canada who migrated west.

-debating whether they should teach FR language in school.

-Laurier calls on the Cath Church
-Church sent Cardinal (Card.) from Vatican and makes a deal
-Card. argument: FR have good living standards in QU why do they have to
complain re outside of QU, so FR-Cdn shut up
-important b/c proves again that the church is an internatinal institution
ready to dive into international matters
-July 1896 Laurier besomes Prime Minister
-has an apprentice: Henri Bourassa
-Liberalist, Eng-nationalist & Fr-natinalistes
-younger, & less attracted to idea of imperialism than Laurier.

HIS 311 Oct 8
-PM ->colonial Sceretary->governor General
->Foreign Secretary->BR Embassy
-Fr.-Cdn to Br Liberal
-trying to make liberals attractive to Fr-Cdn’s
-Fr-Cdns more keen to Cath Church
-in Cda politics around Eng and Fr division
-to be a success must appeal to both language groups.

-eco boom 1896-1907 til 1912-1913
-Cdn west opening up
-massive immigration
-after 20 yrs of emmigration
-finally cda a success.

-Lau period during prosperity
-limited understanding of Eng Cdns
-began to have difficulty w/ Eng cdn who were very attached to Britain
-Lau understood and predict Eng -Cdn behaviour
-locally oriented: to develp Cda must support cdn
-internal dev’p and expansion: railways, canals,
-would have like to leave IR alone
-Cda is still a colony: Br could pass laws that would affect Cda
-in 1896: modified to give Cda local autonomy. b/c Br didn’t want to pay
for other services
-but Br did retain pwer over foreign afairs and defense
-all was a concern of Br
-Gov’t of Cda did not have a sovereign status, must agree with Br before
making any Int’l law
-Br conservative PM: Lord Salisbury:
very old family even older than roayl family
-Joe Chamberlain (CS)
-Sals offered JC any job he wanted
-JC wantto be colonial secretary (CS)
-but CS was yucky job
-but JC was an imp man so CS became also imp
-CS: heads the Colonial Office has clerks to keep files in order from all
the Br colonies.

-in Cda the Gov’r Gen’l is monarch rep
is Ld. Aberdhine (sp?)
-Gov’r Gen’l:
-most of time not to interfere in Cdn politics
-has 10 paid staff, job is ceremonial
-keeps Cda correspondence with outside world
-link of Cda and London, then thru London to any other country on earth
-very lengthy process in solving probelms
-a mechanic of fear, and threat that Br’s predominance is fraying at the
-1870’s Ge is unified and first class military and soon industrial power.

-Br is nervous of Ge.

-would Br be safe?
-negative: Br dissipating its sources on far colonies who have nothing to
do w/ Br, but have to be defended which cost more money, Br would do better
if it concentrated on itself
-+’ve: colonies are what makes Br 1st class power,
-colonies will be prosperous, soon
-JC argues that Colonies ca be turned quickly to reinforce the strength of
the Br Empire.

-remember: “no taxation w/out representation”
-Br parliament has no rep form any colony
-diff b/c colonies less population of whole of Br. there would always be a
majority of Br isles.

-Lau: assume that Br can’t solve this problem. Cda don’t want to mix probs.

w/ Br.

-JC: have periodic conferences of the empire
-So in 1897 Qu Victoria has her Diamond Jubilee (60 yrs on throne)
-PM of all dominin have parties and brought troops
-Lau rep of Cda: complained re how seductive to have duchesses and lord and

-unwillingly Lau became Knighted
-now a Sir Wilfrid and attended a COLONIAL CONFERENCE
– PM of Cape Colony was Cecile Rhodes
-another in 1806 a colony Natal
-Predominantly: “Coloured”: mix of dutch and bunch of others.

-had Dutch colonists
-Du didn’t like Br Rule so they movednorth and frmed autonomous state:
transvaal, Orange Free State
-majority black but have Dutch predminance
-1880’s gold is discovered in transvaal become city of johannesburg
-Br rush in and Du thought that they will be overcome by Br
-PM Rhodes: gold entrepeneur wants to annex the gold states
-Br. gov’t provoke the transvaal and orange free state,
-1899: Br sent troops to SAfrica
-0ct 1899: attack Br colony believing that it was preemptive strike
-Oct to Sprng f 1900 fighting
-Br army thought that they could crush Du farmers (Boer) =boer War
-JC’s chance to shine
-issues a call for aid from JC.

-JC needs men
-Lau turns to parliament and they were divided
-Eng-Cdn says send troops now
-but Fr-Cdn says that this is not Cdn matters but Br only
-SWL decides that unity of LIbs more imp than sending trops to Boer War
-under much pressure WL sends troops to SAfrica.

-under condition that trained in Cda then sent to SAfrica to be paid for by
Br gov’t
-Br to march up and take Johannesburg
-by June 1900: captured Johannesburg
-but guerilla war went on
-br not prepared for this
-Br took all citiczens and put onto “concentration camps” eventually
surrendered in 1902
-in mean time: WL won election
-pointed out that military contracts came to Qu so they voted for him
-Eng-Cdn were not so happy but WLdid send troops
-JC’s son became king Edward II
-tried again to get colonies to agree to some regular contribution form
colonies to empire but JC failed
-But WL said that if some concessions made for Cda might give some support
-but JC fails so resign:
HIS 311 Oct 10
McKinley 1899-1901
T. Roosevelt 1901-1909
Taft 1909-1913
Lord Bryce
Elihu Root
-if member of empire, then if u are in trouble then the entire empire sould
-if this is the case then a weak country such as Cda should get help form
other developed country of empire
-Due to Boer War destroyed Br’s reputation
1. Br took on adversary who was a lot smaler: Bully
2. Weakness of Br made a -‘ve impression abroad
-Br saw that there was no support form other countries
-Br saw that moral standing was -vely affected
-Eur didn’t like Br. actions, thot they were moving too fast
-Eur thot anglo-saxon hypocrasy
-sense that Br. was tryng to teach rest of Eur.

-Sense of isolation indicates that Br will have probs w/ foreign policy
-19th C Br was powerful didn’t need regular allies, had pwrful navy, giant
economy, had good political institutions, they were calm and envied by
other country’s having war and unrest
-Br trying to make an alliance policy
-due to sense of growing weakness
-isolated from prob of Eur.

-Br navy in b/w Br and Cda
-hard for any other country to attack Cda from Eur.

-only S (US) can attack Cda
-US is imp in terms of Cda’s external relations (ie US Civil War)
-Br felt that Cda could not be defended if US attacks so Br left
-Br not want to defend Cda
-only way to protect Cda was thru diplmatic means
-US thot that Cda was not a threat
-US army was a mere plice force concentrated in the West and no navy to
back it up.

-US rely on volunteer army,
-during Span-US war: US won and got some colonies,
-US became an empire and Br approved ofthis and they became friends
-Br and US have many things in cmmn: sim societies, and ideals, therefore
they should stand for the same stands in IR
-Cda and US have many relations
-60% of US trade is with Cda
-only Br can speak for Cda in IR
-Br Imperial instution are changing
-Aug 17, 1896 Gold rush of Yukon river, in Cdn territory
3 ways of getting there:
1. train to Edmonton then travel up
2. take ship around Alaska
both too long
3 take ship to Skagway port of Alaska
go thru mountains then see RCMP
-many probs emerged w/ travellling
-at this time Cdn’s thought that it would be good to own Skagway
-Tr of 1825 b/w Br and Ru, boundery followed the sinouosities of the coast.

-Cda is small power and want land from large and rich Ru, “David and
Goliath” dumb idea
-thot of many plans to get Skagway until 1902, ie leasing Skagway to Cda
-in US pres is McKinley republican very boring and T. Roosevelt was
exciting and young
-TR child of priviledge, prominant in New York, went to Harvard,
intelligent, scholar, publicity hound
-Mackinley’s ppl says TR too rumbunctious
-1901, MacKinley, assasinated
-TR became prez in 1901
-Br needed US help
-TR thought that Alaskan claim was ridiculous
-TR arbitration for this claim
6 individuals, 3 on each side ,
-Alsverstone sides with the US.

-Rejected Cdn case,
-clifford Sifton, Cdn lawyer says Br betrayed Cda, cuz they liked US more
-Cda vexed
-1903 :Alaska boundery Arbitration
-1910: almost all US Cdn irritation kput to rest
-due to Br not want a fight w/ the US, neither does Cda
-helped by 1903 Gold Rush was over.

-alaska and Yukon no longer issue
-monetary issues on Alska claims are getting less imp.

-still some issues b/w US and Cda
-Bryce, Root (US secretary of State) decide to try to make US relations to
its best. Helped much by Laurier who was willing to put off all probs i.e.

seals, fisheries, ducks, along rivers dumping sewage, irrigation in west…

-so many issues to be dealt with and they are
-2 types of ideologies
1. progressivism: reliance on fairness, probs in human life could be
resolved into tiny matters. IP can be dealt with in a scientific manner.

2. Leaglism: appllicatin of law into human affairs, as we prgoress in
civilization we can use judicial processes, abandon old methods of solving
probs ie revenge…

-believe tat this could be used in IR,
-Root believes that tese laws could be applied to IR
-Lord Bryce:”cleaning the slate” try to leave a blank state
1909 Tr.b/w Cda and US
-negotiatied b/w US and Cda the signed by Ld. Bryce
-lays principles for treatment of water held in common
-estb a permanent organization:
Int’l joint Commision (IJC)
-has 3 members from Cda and US, no Br in IJC, purely Cda and US
-Bryce says that Cda can take care of matters with US
-IJC can investigate anything that deals with the water shared b/w US and
-Cda and US estb an institution on basis tat probs can be solved through
mutual understanding.

-takes form of a court, forum
-IJC would not work if it divided on nat’nal lines
-Taft throws party and invites IJC
-IJC a court of gr8 prestige and could arbitrate any US and Cda dispute
-IJC didn’t do anything but still exist
-instead of lawyers became engineers (apply imagination and technique)
-IJC suppose to look at facts arrive at unanimous sci-based decisions
-since then this is how it as wrked
-symbolic of new US and Cda relations
-effectvie autonomy during this time on Cda side
-US relflects imperialists sentiments
progresivism and legalism (ipartiality and arbotration)
-Cda: took diisparity of power b/w uS and Cda, now culd meet on = terms
-from low pt to high pt
HIS 311 Oct 15
Victoria (1837-1901)->Edward VII
->Victoria =Fred of Prussia
->Wilhelm II (the Kaiser)
-Asquith 1908-14 (Winston Churchill
-Cda involved in some Br war
-Cda gets shelter, some eco benefts from Br.

-A lot of Br immigrants
-Br knew that tey were unopular
-other countries are becoming as powerful as Br
-1870 Italy and Germany created
-both have been unified into 1ngl country
-Germany: Prussian king becomes emperor of Germany
-double pop of Fr and idutrializing
-war of 1870, showed Ge army #1 in
Eur. on land
-Br still protected by ROYAL NAVY
-US builds a navy for civil war, but gets rid of them.

-Br no worry for navy. no threat in commerce
-Br depends on open sea lanes and importing food stuffs
-Royal Navy rules Atlantic and in Indian Ocean and Pacific ocean too
-Br built forts everywhere in world
-Navy depends on coal for funtioning
-B of P? Ger on land and Br in sea
-Ger monarch more powerful in country than Queen in Eng
-Wilhem 2nd
-(Bertrand Russel): saw that Willy wanted a fleet as big as grandmother,
but he hated Eng and Grandmother.

-Adm. Tirpitz: German persuaded Kaiser to have a navy
-German naval acts/bills wanted = in Br navy
-Ger wanted supreme power in Br seas
-so Br would live in sufferance of Ger
so the naval race begins
-Slaisbury (PM) then Balfour wnated to make deal w/ the Ger
-but preferred enemies than allies
-no sign alliance and Br have to try harder.

-so Br begins to consider worldwide position
choices of Br:
-1901- do we Br have to dominant in world or at home
-Br signs an alliance with japan AJA
-anglo-japanese alliance
-Jp would reinforce Br position in Northern Pacific
-allow Br to pul some resources out of pacific coast
-1905 and 1911 renewal of alliance
-meant Br would consent to Jap imperial concessions in Asia
-Adm. “Jacky” Fisher
1. AJA -bring ships home, Br must be defended in Br seas and empire take
care of itself
2. persuade the gov’t to agree to build a new form of ship, battleship
(armoured war ship, large with large armaments
-Dreadnought: guns, more armour and faster , revolutionary
this puts Br ahead
-but in 1905 Br ahead 1:0
-Margin of Safety is very small
-Br needed more
-they saw alliance as key to winning
-saw France as an ally, traditionally have been rivals in history
-navy in Fr was nothing
-insecure with relations Ger
-made an alliance with Ru joined by fear of Ger
-1904-5 Br approach Fr Nov.-Dec. 1905 make an alliance. (top secret)
-Campbell-Bannerman (new PM) allows talks with Fr to go on calls ‘ENTENT’
1. solve matters
3. MAKE SECRET PLANS incase of war with Germany
-Germ succes in:
1 fear in to Br
2. alliance with others
3. Br joining alliance
-Entente extending to Rus becomes 3ple Entente and faces 3ple alliance GEr,
Aus and Ita
-leadsBr to distrubute the fleet. defend vs. Ger in north
1fr to med, Br Br channel and north sea
-1911: no navy, no army
-Br makes army: sends gov’r-gen’l to regulate in Cda to try and get Cdn
army in shape
-Cdn army there to keep liberal happy
-Cdn army an extention of Cdn libby party.

-clash b/w professionalizing and political
-Sir Wil thot that army would not help not much in Br affairs but in panic
thought Wil is being an obstructionist
-1908: Naval Scare: Ger pumping scare in Br,
-Br now panicking and demands that Cda help Br.

-Cda has two navalbases :Esquimalt in BC and other in Halifax
-Lau suggest that Cda build its own army. cruisers and destroyers.

-but in case of war cdn navy could be part of royal navy
-1911: Lau signs reciprocity agreement with US, lowered trade barriers b/w
Cda and US.

-seems to be a political masterstroke
-everyone wanted it, Borden of opposition of Tories had no chhoice but to
reect it.

-Lau can’t pass reciprocity thru house of cmmons.

-he calls an election in sept 1911
-tories not popular in Que regarding navy
-Borden ran on two platforms:
EngCda: defeat reciprocity selling out to US
Frncda: selling to BR
-in Eng Cda for Navy in cda
-proposed lau’s ‘tin pot”navy replaced by two great ships to be given to

-borden gave two bills to parliament
1. to get rid of Lau’s navy
2. to get money
-Borden also rejected
-Br didn’t tell Cda how or why Cdn ships needed and used
-inqdequate info for Cda
HIS 311Y Oct 17
World War I
-North Sea:
Firtors- Belgium
. Paris^^Alps
-to become a lawyer need to hang around a superior lawyer, this was what he
did and he became a lawyer
-progressive: thot that world had dev’p enuf expertise to allow
professionals to control many aspects of life
-Progresivism not rep in Cdn parties.

-both cdn parties had traditional and progressive members
-he became leader of Tories by accident
Castles around Queen’s park belonged to :
-Sir Thomas White-min of
-Sir George Foster-min of finance for Borden, lost a lot of money
-not an overwhelming party man, not a politician like Laurier
-1911 Laurier defeated and Borden became PM
-had to make cabinet:
Foster became Min of Trade
White a liberal who switched to Tories became Min of finance
-Borden became min of external affairs
(-1909, Sir Wil persaded that not dealing with IR was impossible now. this
offended Mr. Joseph Pope senior public official,, Pope told Wil to take the
IR lettres created “DEPARTMENT OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS”) to deal with foreign
and empire affairs.

-Charlie Murphy 1st min of external affairs “Secr of state for external
affairs = minister of external affairs” *not secretary of state (US).

-Murphy was useless, main person was Sir Joseph Pope=1st Cdn born diplomat
-after 1909, Pope travels to Wash.

-all appt by Wil
Borden’s view:he thinks this was entry pt to councils of Br empire.

-borden was Imperialist: thinks that cda’s interest are same as Br empire,
but he thinks that Empire don’t look at Cda sufficiently. Wants Cda
consulted with imp issues in Br.

-Cda moves in oposite directin and becomes less involved in empire.

-thot participation was most imp.

-Eur state system, higly unstable, yet rigid
-b4 1914 has more and more crisis, mainly caused by Ge pushing the envelope
-each time there is a conference and each time there is solution and Ge
-Ge senior officials :Wilhem 2nd never getwhat they want and fed up with
the conference system
-Ge has a weak ally
-“Tyranny of the weak” by threatening to disappear = Austria
-the Serbians
-on june 28, 1914: Franz Ferdinand and wife: were in Sarajevo in Bosnia,
serbians want to belong to serbs assasinates Franz
-Austria somewhat happy, then they meet with Wilhem, he tells them to
attack Serbia.

-Wilhem goes on vacation
-Aus gives Serbs ultimatum agress to most but one. so Aus attack
-but Ru was close to Serbs and threatens them. France nudges Ru to support
Serbs don’t wait now
-meanwhile in Ge, that they shouldn’twait to attack
-esp the French: ENTENTE
-entente with the En If either one attacks Ge other must also go to war
-july 27 peace-aug4 war
-Br PM Asquith and foreign minister Gray did not war at all try to bring
-Cabinet meets with Fr amb at the door
-Fr. thinks that Br will always let them down
-BR. mil’try wants war, but civilian cabinet did not want it
-the push: Schleiffen Plan Ge plans to attack Fr but Belgium (neutral in
b/w Fr and Ge) Ge wants to march thru Belguim but they refused t let them
thru so Ge attacks Belguim. Belgium’s neutrality is known so Br declares
war on Ge. on Aug 4th
-Sam Hughes (minister of defense/millitia) wanted war
-“the low cunning of the insane”
-“the ross rifle” built in Quebec, but also had to dig trenches so made
hole in shovel attached to the rifle
-Valcartier a military base in Quebec.

-all mil’ry organization be ignored and he makes his own army:
in commandable battallion 800-1000 troops, commanded by left-hand

-had to send tese men to Eur
-Ge Schleiffen plan din’t work
-dec 1914 two oppsong armies Ge and Br/Fr facing fronts of 600 miles and no
way of breaking thru the trenches.

-the Cdn expeditionary force. arrive in Eng
-3/4 or 2 batt (1000) men = 1 brigade
commanded by brigidaire gen’l
-3 brigade=a divisvision
has infrntryor cavalry
also has oter troop for support
2/3 division = Corps (body)
corpd commanded by lt. gen’l
2-4 = army
bigger army div intoarmies
CEF(cdn are part of BEF (Br expeditionary force)
-1st big war where ppl die in battle than disease. b4 morelikely to die
of sickness
-army was well-organized
HIS 311 Oct 24
BourassaLloyd George
Clemencean Woodrow Wilson
-consequences of man costly war due to innovations in warfare see last
.Man Pwer Crisis
-during Lloyd George
-he thinks he can get man power an dmoney from senior colonies
how: he invents “The Imperial War Cabinet” commitee of ministers
-pre 1917- how to bring the two tegether?
-cabinet dealt with war things, also involved PMs of Can Aus New Z and S-
-Borden gets summons and ship to
Sir George Foster (crook) attends the Imperial War Conference
Cabinet: executive body, have force, can make decisionshas beaurocrats
Conference: talk shop decision have to go thru the Cabinet
IWCon: talked about end of war
-war aims of Brit Empire
-New Z, Aus wanted pacific islands
-S-Afr wanted Ge colonies
-Cda: Alaska pan-handle, Greenland and Northern Maine
-LG minority cabinet LIberal and in trouble with government
-Conservative are close to the Generals, Gen’s needed more men…

-hoping by bringing inn dominion leaders he hopes that they will help him
-this gave some clout in British politics
-good pol’cal maneuver
In Canada
-conscription: compulsary mil’try service
-Public Opinion: some cowardly young men in the cities doing something
vicious, also there were French-Canadians, who did not
-Borden not popular in Que, not enough presentation
-this was not Fr/Cdn war, only mattered to English-Canadians.

-altho some did go to war Fr-Cdn
War Industry
-businesses looking for machine operators
-so women were employed
War Agriculture:
-needed men to work the fields
-agriculturists are largest voting block
Union Government
-borden wants to form a coalition Gov’t
-abolish politics for balance of war
-Laurier says no
-Borden goes to Eng/Cdn Liberals
-no response either
conscription Crisis
-War time Electives Act: allows women who has someone overseas, and sme men
overseas to vote
-election is set for early Dec.

-Quebec nationalism
-oppose to war, and conscription
To win election Borden promises to farmers 40-45% of population, that kids
of farmers cannot be conscripted.

In election
-Laurier contines to particiaptate and validate the political system.

.Thanks to Laurier:
-Cdn party system survives war
-there is alternative gov’t, and not exclusively Fr/Cdn
-Qu accepts the verdict of 1917
-Qu still participates in national gov’t
-Important: something that did not happen: Qu did not leave its ties with
-conscription not very successful
-my b-day 1918: Ger attack heavily
-st8 of emergency, need more men from dominions
-thou of men killed to bad generals
-LG uses IWCab to fire general and hire knew one, told him to stop waisting
-May, German sloly backing down
-by Nov, Ger at the end of resistence
1. need terms
2. train to go neutral Holland, Netherlands, and Wilhelm should be on it
-nOV 18, 1918″ Armistice (cease fire)
-designed so Ger could not start war again
-borden celebrating boat on way to Cabinet to disscuss post war
-this changed Canada and its connection with Br
-Pre-war, many jobs holding only after 1918
-canada cnetre of world finance
very dependent on Br.

-cda realizes that
1914-1917 used propaganda to get ppl to join war. demonized the enemy
-114 Cda in depression
1915- lag in proces
and wages
treaty of Versailles
-cda is involved
-Jan 1919, british delgation
-US, GrB Fr It and Ja
on the allied side
-meet in Jan and Jun
-Belgm, Portuugal, Ser Gr Rom, minor allies
-Dave Lloyd George head of British Delegation
-Cda part of Br delegation
.Cda’s participation
-Cdns have acces, knows what is going on and
-Navigation on danube, Aireal Naavigatiion, limiting boundery b/w gReece
and Albania, relations b/w Greece and Turkey
World War 1
-after gr8 enthusiasm comes great depression
-tremendous let-down in 1918-1939
-WW1 had abeen immoral, put noble sentiment in service of trivial cause
-left society greedy, divided,unhappy, discontent…

-war did not mean militarism a fashionable, there was anti-militarism
-gave chance for Cdn men,
-war was revealing and transforming
-altho sacrifice, exhasution, but for many they belived taht it was a war
of good
-not everyone thought war had been -‘ve,
-some came back w/ discontent with end of war
-many cdns to be awful
-others apart form nationalistic feling thought was should have been
embraced andit was agood thing
-war was end of innocence
-Cda was innocent but it was deeply changeed