.. religion at the end of the 6th century, some Latin words were added. About 2,000 Danish words and phrases were also added to Old English. At that time, the combining of native elements in prefixing, suffixing, and compounding was the most characteristic way of expanding the word stock. (Bright, 1998) Britain was invaded again during the Viking age of about 750 to 1050. This invasion was mostly by Danes who then settled in central and southern England.
Throughout Britain, most of the people spoke Old English and few words from the Celtic influence remained. Middle English began with the 1066 Norman Conquest. French-speaking Normans carried out government and educational duties. The Norman invasion caused a bilingual environment with the middle class speaking both French and English. It brought approximately 10,000 Norman French words into Middle English. The Normans exerted a great influence in food, fashion, education, religion, government, law, and the military.
With the approach of the 18th century, English became an analytical language. Its rich inflectional system weakened, causing a great increase in the use of prepositional phrases, in new phrasal prepositions, and in periphrastic verb construction (Bright, 1992). During the Renaissance, English displaced Latin as the language used in philosophy, science, and other learned arenas. Since English was lexically deficient, it borrowed Latin and Greek words for nouns and adjectives. It is estimated that during the first 150 years of New English, more than 10,000 words from 50 languages were borrowed.
It also asserted that the current English language has borrowed foreign words from more than 75 languages with French as the principal donor (Crystal, 1992). The Old English method of using affixes and compounding to form words was displaced in New English by borrowing words as the favorite way of enlarging the English word stock. The history of Modern English has three important themes. The themes include the extension of English into new subject areas, the spread of English to many parts of the world, and the growth of English into Standard British English (Crystal, 1992). The extension of the language began with the first printed English translation of the Bible in 1525. The Authorized Version of the English Bible was translated in 1611.
Finally, the revised Book of Common Prayer was published in 1662. The Bible and the prayer book were in everyday use in Anglican churches until the 1970(s), where they influenced the speaking and writing of English for over 300 years. English took the place of Latin during the 16th century in religion, science, and scholarship. To make this transition possible, vast numbers of loan words have been added to the English language. English has spread to many parts of the world.
It became a native language for English-speaking colonies, which are now independent and powerful states. British trade and influence also spread English; it is the second language of many other states because the ex-colonial countries have no better choice of a national language. English is currently acknowledged as the universal language of diplomacy and science. It is also the language that people usually speak when addressing foreigners, and it is the most popular second language (Dalby, 1998). Standard British English is the widely accepted standard language, the language of London and its elite.
It is sometimes called the Kings (or Queens) English, BBC English, and Received Pronunciation. This standard use of English has been helped by the spread of education and literacy, the extension of printing and publishing, and recently the influence of radio and television. All these factors have increased the standardization of pronunciation, spelling, and spoken and written style. English shares linguistic features with other Indo-European languages. However, the lexicon, morphology, and phonology are characteristically Germanic.
One example of this is that past tense inflections are a Germanic characteristic. Another distantly Germanic characteristic is the fixed primary stress on the first syllable, as expressed in the word brother (Bright 410). After completion of my research paper on the history of the English language, I can conclude that my hypothesis was generally correct. I had hypothesized that the English language was derivative from the Germanic tribes that invaded England during the fourth and fifth centuries. All the information I have found leads me in the direction of my original hypothesis except for the section that discusses the involvement of the Celtic tribe to the language.
However, the overall conclusion that the language had derived from Germanic tribes is true, thus my hypothesis is correct. Only after researching through various books and dictionaries did I come to the conclusion that my hypothesis was correct. Although other tribes from with other languages such as the Vikings tried unsuccessfully many times to invade England, it remained a Germanic based language. The English language is a complex language to understand, it has been around for many years, and has proven to be the language of the world. Better understanding of how this language became what it is today will help to better the knowledge of millions of English speaking people.
One does not begin to comprehend the extent of the language until research such as the one presented here is done; only then can one truly appreciate the language and how it has evolved. I would most certainly encourage others to take part in my research and learn a little about the language that they all speak. With the world as it stands today, the English language remains the most important language to know. Countries all over the world that speak different languages stress the importance of knowing English, fore the universal language is English, and it shall remain English for centuries to come. Bibliography Bibliography 1. Asher, R.E. and J.
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2nd Ed. New York: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1997. 298-299. 5. Crystal, David. An Encyclopedia Dictionary of Language and Languages.
USA: Blackwell Publishers, 1992. 121-122, 134, 185-186. 6. Dalby, Andrew. Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to more than 400 Languages. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC, 1998.166-179.
7. OGrady, William, Michael Dobrovolsky and Mark Aronoff. Contemporary Linguistics. 3rd Ed. New York: St.
Martins Press, Inc., 1992. 332. 8. Van Doren, Charles. A History of Knowledge Past, Present, and Future.
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