Human Growth And Development Human Growth and Development 1. abusive relationship: when one partner in a relationship becomes violent or aggressive toward the other. 2. accommodation: according to Piaget, changing existing knowledge based on new knowledge. 3.
achievement status: identity status in which adolescents have explored alternative identities and are now secure in their chosen identities. 4. active euthanasia: deliberate ending of someones life. 5. activities of daily living (ADLs): self-care tasks such as eating, bathing, toileting, walking, or dressing. 6.
activity: dimension of temperament defined by the tempo and vigor of a childs activity. 7. adaptation level: area where environmental press is average for a particular level of competence. 8. addiction: physical dependence on a particular substance, such as alcohol. 9. adolescent egocentrism: self-absorption that is characteristic of teenagers as they search for identity.
10. aerobic exercise: exercise that places a moderate on the heart by maintaining a pulse rate between 60% and 90% of the maximum heart rate. 11. age discrimination: denying a job or promotion to someone solely on the basis of their age. 12.
age integrated housing: where people of all ages live together and interact. 13. age of viability: age at which a fetus can survive because most of its bodily systems function adequately; typically at seven months after conception. 14. age-segregated housing: where all residents are of the same age. 15.
agreeableness: dimension of personality associated with being accepting, willing to work with others, and caring. 16. alert inactivity: state in which a baby is calm with eyes open and attentive, and the baby seems to be deliberately inspecting the environment. 17. alienation: when workers feel that what they are doing is meaningless, that their efforts are devalued, or when they do not see the connection between what they do and the final product.
18. alleles: variations of genes. 19. altruism: pro-social behavior such as helping and sharing in which the individual does not benefit directly from his or her behavior. 20. Alzheimers disease: disease associated with aging characterized by gradual declines in memory, learning, attention, and judgment; confusion as to time and where one is; difficulties in communicating and finding the words one wants to use; declines in personal hygiene and self-care skills; inappropriate social behavior; and changes in personality. 21.
amniocentesis: prenatal diagnostic technique that involves withdrawing a sample of amniotic fluid through the abdomen using a syringe. 22. amnion: inner sac in which the developing child rests. 23. amyloid: protein that is produced in abnormally high levels in Alzheimers disease and that may be responsible for the neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. 24.
animism: crediting inanimate objects with life and life-like properties such as feelings. 25. anniversary reaction: changes in behavior related to feelings of sadness on the actual anniversary of a death. 26. anorexia nervosa: persistent refusal to eat, accompanied by an irrational fear of being overweight. 27.
anoxia: lack of oxygen during delivery, typically because the umbilical cord becomes pinched or tangled during delivery. 28. anxiety disorders: problems such as feelings of severe anxiety for no apparent reason, phobias to specific things or places, and obsessive-compulsive disorders in which thoughts or actions are repeatedly performed. 29. appraise: to evaluate a situation to determine whether it exceeds a persons resources and is, therefore, stressful. 30.
assimilation: according to Piaget, taking in information that is compatible with what one already knows. 31. assortative mating: theory of mating that states that people find partners based on their similarity to each other. 32. attachment: enduring social-emotional relationship between infants and their caregivers. 33. attentional processes: processes that determine which information will be processed further by an individual.
34. authoritarian parents: parents who show high levels of control and low levels of warmth toward their children. 35. authoritative parents: parents who use a moderate amount of control and who are warm and responsive to their children. 36.
autosomes: first 22 pairs of chromosomes. 37. average life expectancy: age at which half of the people born in a particular year will have died. 38. avoidant attachment: relationship in which infants turn away from their mothers when they are reunited following a brief separation.
39. axon: tube-like structure that emerges from the cell body and transmits information to other neurons. 40. babbling: speech-like sounds that consist vowel-consonant combinations. 41.
basal metabolic rate: speed with which the body consumes calories. 42. basic cry: cry that starts softly and gradually becomes more intense often heard when babies are hungry or tired. 43. basic emotions: emotions experienced by humankind and that consist of three elements: a subjective feeling, a physiological change, and an overt behavior.
44. battered woman syndrome: situation in which a woman believes that she cannot leave an abusive situation. 45. behavior therapy: approach to treating depression based on increasing the number of rewards or reinforcements in the environment. 46.
bioethics: study of the interface between human values and technological advances in health and life-sciences. 47. biological forces: all genetic and health-related factors that affect development. 48. biopsychosocial framework: view that integrates biological, psychological, sociocultural, and life-cycle forces on development. 49. blended family: family consisting of a biological parent, a stepparent, and children.
50. brain death: most widely accepted definition of death, including no heart-beat, respiration, responsiveness, reflexes, and brain activity. 51. bulimia nervosa: disease in which people alternate between binge eating (periods in which they eat uncontrollably) and purging through self-induced vomiting or with laxatives. 52.
burnout: depletion of a persons energy and motivation. 53. cardinality principle: counting principle that the last number and name denotes the number of objects being counted. 54. career plateauing: either a lack of promotional opportunity from the organization or a persons decision not to seek advancement. 55.
cell body: center of the neuron that keeps the neuron alive. 56. cellular theories: theories of aging that focus on processes that occur within individual cells, which cause the build-up of harmful substances over ones life-time. 57. centrality: meaning derived when grand-parenting is the most important thing in grandparents lives. 58. cephalocaudal principle: principle that growth occurs from the head first and then down the spine.
59. cerebral cortex: wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctively human. 60. cerebral vascular accidents: see strokes. 61.
chorionic villus sampling: prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion. 62. chromosomes: thread-like structures in the nuclei of the sperm and egg that contain genetic material. 63. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD): most common form of incapacitating respiratory disease among older adults; examples are asthma and emphysema.
64. circadian rhythm: sleep-wake cycle. 65. climacteric: loss of ability to bear children, which usually begins in the 40s and is complete by age 50 or 55. 66. clinical death: death defined by a lack of heartbeat and respiration. 67.
clique: small group of friends who are similar in age, sex, and race. 68. co-dominance: situation in which one allele does not dominate another completely. 69. cognitive therapy: approach to depression based on the idea that maladaptive beliefs or cognitions about oneself are responsible for depression.
70. cohabitation: two or more unrelated adults living together. 71. cohort effects: differences between individuals that result from experiences and circumstances unique to a persons particular generation. 72. comparable worth: equating pay in occupations that are determined to be equivalent in importance but differ in terms of the gender distribution of the people in them. 73.
competence: upper limit of a persons ability to function in five domains: physical health, sensory-perceptual skills, motor skills, cognitive skills, and ego strength. 74. complex emotions: emotions that have a self- evaluative component. 75. cones: specialized neurons in the back of the eye that sense color. 76. conscientiousness: dimension of personality associated with being hard-working, ambitious, energe …