Britian was the most powerful country at
the time of its empire in India. Between 1850 to 1890,
Great Britian had a very powerful control over the world. Expanding
from, fromerly known, United Kingdom to China and from China to the North
America’s maybe South America. It had terrotories between these land
masses. With its naval glory and pride and its superiour land army, India
was just another country to take over who played a big part in their economy.
India is known by many countries as the economical “Gold Mine.”
For economic, nationalist, and humanitarian reasons, Britian’s powerful
nations have often interfered with the affairs of weaker nations. Britian’s
powerful nations have in the past exploited less fortunate ones for resources,
capital, and knowledge. Yet in return, India has gained the technology
and capital that, over a period of time and development, improved
its quality of life.
Indian economy was transferred into a colonial
economy whose nature and structure was determined by the needs of the British
economy. High revenue demands and rigid manners of collection forced peasants
into the clutches of the moneylenders. Expanding population put greater
pressure on land as there was no corresponding development of industry.
India “inherited” from Britian a cheap and easy system of transport was
important for the flow of British ready made goods and the export of raw
material to Britain on large scale. Roads were improved and steam ships
were introduced. But real improvement came with the railways which started
in 1853, between Bombay V.T. and Thane. In her trade with other countries,
India usually maintained a favourable balance, which were used for paying
off various kinds of dues charged on India by Britain. With Britian leading
the Industrial Revolution, India was bound to be second to industrialize.
Up to 1914, Industrial development was mainly restricted in the production
of export of those goods with the natural advantage (jute, tea etc.) and
in those areas where competition with British counterparts was not serious
(coarse goods). During the inter-war period of 1914 – 39, it was in the
production of consumer goods for mass market within India, mainly due to
war tariffs and depression. Finally the last decade of British rule from
1939-47, brought another phase – the production of capital goods for the
domestic market. It started with factories and the mining of natural resources,
but it eventually came to India’s fully industralized civilazation, and
that’s not all. British rule taught Indians to see themselves as
Indians, and its benefits included railways, roads, canals, schools, universities,
hospitals, law and a universal language. There were also habits of mind
and government which derived from Britain.