Indian Removal

.. ibes wanted toprotect it so they fought for it. The soldiers from Fort Gibson began to make boundaries, construct roads, and escort delegates to the region. The soldiers also started to implement the removal process in other ways to. The soldiers of Fort Gibson were fiercly hated by the Indian tribes of that region. Yet during the many years of the indian removal, there was never a alsh between the soldiers or the tribes.

An Indian was never killed by the Army. The soldiers at Fort Gibson served as a cultural buffer between the whites and the indians. The Fort was established in the 1820’s by General Matthew Arbuckle. He served and commanded it through most of it’s two decades during the Indian removal. He wrote his last report from it on June 21, 1841. THE CHEROKEE INDIANS The Cherokee Indians live in many parts of the United states, but more than 100,000 live in parts of Oklahoma.

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Many Cherokee have moved elsewhere. In the 1800’s, the Cherokee Nation was one of the strongest Indian tribes in the United States. They were part of the Five Civilized Tribes. The Cherokee Nation began to adopt the economic and political stucture of the white settlers in the early 1800’s. They owned large plantations and some even kept slaves.

The Cherokee Nation was a form of republican government. A Cherokee Indian named Sequoya introduced a system of writing for the Cherokee language in 1821 also. White settlers began to protest the Cherokee’s right to own land in the early 1800′. They demanded that the Cherokee Nation be moved west of the Mississippi to make room for white settlers. Some members of the Cherokee Nation signed treaties with the government in 1835 agreeing to move to designated areas in Oklahoma.

Most of the tribe did not want to be relocated so they opposed the treaty. But most of the Cherokees, led by Chief John Ross, were forced to move to the Indian Territory in the winter of 1838-1839. More than 17,000 Cherokees marched from their homes to Oklahoma. This march was called the Trail of Tears. Many Indians died on this journey.

Even though most of the Cherokee nation had been forced to move, more than a 1,000 Cherokee escaped and remained in the Great Smoky Mountains, which is in parts of Tenessee and North Carolina. These tribes became known as the Eastern Band of Cherokee. The Cherokee who went west reformed the political system that they had before. The Cherokee Nation set up schools and churches. But all this progress was stopped in the late 1800’s.

Congress voted to abolish the Cherokee Nation to open yet more land for settlement by whites. Today most of the Cherokee remain in northeastern Oklahoma, where they have reestablished their form of government. CHICKISAW INDIANS The Chickisaw Indians were a tribe that lived in the southern United States. Their land included western Tenessee and Kentucky, northwestern Alabama, and northern Mississippi before the Indian removal. They were relocated to Oklahoma by the government in the 1830’s.

The Chickisaws lived in several small vilages with one- room log cabins. The people supported meach other by trading with other tribes, fishing, farming, and hunting. Each village was headed by a chief. The Chickisaw Indians were known as fierce warriors. They fought for Great Britain when they fought France and Spain for control of the southern United States.

They also helped them fight against the colonists in the Revolutionary War (1775-1783). And During the Civil War, the tribe fought for the Confederacy (1861-1865). The tribe was relocated to the Indian Territory in 1837 by the National Government. They also took part in the Trail of Tears. In 1907, the Chickisaw Indian territory became part of the new state of Oklahoma.

About 5,300 Chickisaw descendants live in Oklahoma. They have a Democratic government in which they elect their leaders for the welfare of the tribe. CHOCTAW INDIANS The Choctaw tribe originates from Alabama and Mississippi. They believed in the primitive ways and hunted and farmed to support themselves. They raised corn and other crops to trade with other Indians.

They celebrate their crops with their chief religious ceremony which is a harvest celebration called the Green Corn Dance. One of their legends states that the Choctaw Indian tribe was created at a sacred mount called Nanih Waiya, near Noxapater, Mississippi. After the Indian Removal Act was passed, the Choctaw Indians were forced to move west in order to make room for more white settlers. They were forced to sighn the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek after fierce fighting with the United States army. This treaty exchanched the Indians land for the assigned Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma.

In the early 1830’s, over 14,000 Choctaws moved to the Indian Territory in several groups. Although many groups of Indians were gone, over 5,000 Choctaws remained in Mississippi. The Choctaws who moved to the Indian Territory established their own way of life. They modernized themselves by establishing schools and an electoral form of government. In the Civil War, the Choctaw Indians fought on the side of the Confederacy and when the south was defeated, they were forced to give up much of their land.

Their tribal governments were dissolved by 1907, when Oklahoma became a state. It stayed that way unttil 1970 when they were recognized by congress and allowed to elect their own chief. Today, many Choctaw are farmers. About 11,000 still live in Oklahoma and nearly 4,000 still live in Mississippi as a seperate tribe. CREEK INDIANS The Creek Indians a part of a 19 tribal group that once resided in much of what is now Alabama and Georgia.

Today, many of the 20,000 Creek Indians live in Oklahoma. The Muskogee and the Alabama are the largest Creek tribes. Most of them live north of the other Creek tribes. They are called the Upper Creeks. The lower Creek tribes belong to either Yuchi or Hitichi tribes.

In the 1800’s, the Creeks fought wars with people trying to settle on their lands. They fought in the first and second Creek Wars. They were great warriors who attacked with the element of surprise. After the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, the Creeks were forced to sign a Treaty that made them give up their land. In the 1830’s, they were forced to move to the Indian Territory in what is know Oklahoma.

Very few Indians were left behind and they ones who did leave had to leave their belongings behind. The Creeks recieved very little payment for their lands. The Creeks were forced to live in poverty for many years. Many Creeks are still very poor today. Some struggled with crops and became fairly prosperous.

Much of the land given to them was not of much value. Also in 1890, a series of laws broke up many tribal landholdings of the Creeks and they were sold to individual Indians. After this, many Creeks were forced back into poverty. SEMINOLE INDIANS The Seminole Indians are a tribe the used to reside in Florida in the early 1800’s. The Seminole originally belonged to the Creek tribe. They broke apart from them and moved out of Alabama and Georgia and moved into Florida in the 1700’s They became known as Seminoles because the name means runaways. The Seminoles opposed the United States when they came for the Seminole’s land.

The United acquired Florida in 1819, and began urging them to sell their land to the government and to move to the Indian Territory along with the other southeasten tribes. In 1832, some of the Seminole leaders signed a treaty and promised to relocate. The Seminole tribe split at this time. After the Indians that agreed to move had gone the other part of the tribe fought to keep their lands. They fled into the Florida swamps.

They started the Second Seminole war (1835). This was fought over the remaining land that the Seminole had fled to. It lasted for seven years. 1,500 American men died and the cost to the United States was $20 million. The Seminole were led by Osceola until he was tricked by General Thomas Jessup.

Osceola was seized and imprisoned by Jessup during peace talks under a flag of truce. Osceola died in 1838 when he still in prison. After the war, many Seminoles moved west but still asmall group stayed hidden in the Florida swamps.