Insecticides

Insecticides An insecticide is used to kill insects. There are many kinds of insecticides, but organic insecticides are the most commonly used (World Book, 1999). Organic insecticides are split into three different categories: Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, organophosphate insecticides, and carbamate insecticides (World Book, 1999). In this paper, I’ll explore how toxic each of these insecticides are, how they affect wildlife, humans, and the environment, and what we can do to help. WHY USE INSECTICIDES? Some insects, like white flies and mosquitoes, can carry deadly diseases that affect crops, animals and humans.

Insects can cause about 5.5 billion dollars in crop and live stock losses every year. Some of the diseases they cause are Cattle Fever and Sheep Scab. The insecticides are used to kill insects and protect livestock (World Book, 1999). Insecticides can also be used on flea treatments for cats, dogs, and other animals (Ackerman, 1996). WHAT ARE ORGANIC INSECTICIDES? Organic Insecticides are the most commonly and widely used insecticides. They are synthetic substances made from carbon, hydrocarbon insecticies, organophosphate insecticides (World Book 1999). Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, also know as “organic chlorines”, contain chlorine atoms (World Book 1999). Common members of this group are Acaralate, Acarol, Aldrin, BHC, Chlordance, Chlorobenzilate, DDT, dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, kepone, lindane, methoxychlor, mirex, perthen, TDE, and toxaphene (Hamm 1982).

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They’re persistant because after being used once, they can still affect living things for several years. This is because they don’t break down chemically so they’re found in soil, animal and fish tissue, plants, and water (Hamm, 1982). These, and all persistant insecticides, are trying to be replaced and restricted because they kill bird, fish, and other animals (World Book, 1999). Organophospahte Insecticides contain phosphorus atom (World Book, 1999). Common members of this group are Abate, azinphosethyl, azinphosmethyl, Bidrin, bromophos, bromophosethyl, carbophenothion, and chlorfenvinphos (Hamm, 1982).

They are used on food because they don’t leave harmful deposits behind (World Book, 1999). This is because the breakdown rapidly into harmless components. They also break down in the presence of water. They have less environmental danger than chlorinateed hydrocarbons which is why they’ve almost replaced them for side scale usage (Hamm 1982). However, they are poisoness to people.

One type of organophosphate, paratheion, is used to kill mites and aphids on fruit trees and vegetables. Another kind, malathion, are less dangerous to apply, so they’re widely used by farmers ( World Book, 1999). Carbonates are the last kind of organic insecticide. They are made from carbamic acid which is CO2NH3 (Hamm, 1982). They also contain one or more amino groups that are of one nitrogen atom and two hydogen atoms.

They don’t leave harmful deposits in food but some are harmful to warm blooded animals (World Book, 1999). Common members of this group are aldicarb, BUX, carbaryl, carbofuran, dimetilan, formetanate, methiocarb, methiocarb, methomyl, propoxur, and zectran. These are relatively new and might eventually replace organophosphates (Hamm, 1982). HOW TOXIC ARE THEY? Carbamates contain the insecticide Sevin. Sevin has a low toxicity.

It is effective against many insects that are resistant to other pesticides. Caramates also include the insectide Baygon, or Propoxar. Propoxar is highly toxic and has a long residual life. It’s effective against cockroaches, ticks, and other difficult insect and arachnid species (Hamm, 1982). Carbamates don’t leave harmful deposits in food ( World Book, 1999). The Chlorinated Hydrocarbon contain the insecticide DDT.

DDT is moderately toxic and was once one of the most widely used insecticides but are now greatly restricted because it stays in soil and in water food chans (Hamm, 1982). They also endanger animals like birds and fish and they contaminate the food that people eat. Since 1972, the U.S. Government phased out all use of DDT, but it’s still used in other countries (World Book, 1999). Organophosphates and carbamates carry some of the same risks. They are both commonly used and both have a high incidence of acute toxicity in animals and humans. Both insecticides are used in flea treatments for pets.

They’re more dangerous than the other commonly used insecticides like pynethrins and pyrethoids. Symptoms of insecticide poisoning include: pinpoint pupils, blurred vision, tightness in chest, sweating, excessive tear production, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Cardio vascular and neurological problems can also occur. Problems with the nervous system are decreased alertness, sleep disorders, memory loss, and paranoia. Long term effects can occur in the immune system, nervous system, and reproductive system.

HOW CAN WE HELP? Some people are trying to change by using more natural insecticides. Once insecticide is cow urine. It’s used on cotton and protects it from whiteflies. It also works as a fertilizer. The iron, potassium, and magnesium in it makes the grow better (Hecht, 1998).

Another natural insecticide is chilli powder. The only problem with this is it can affect people’s eyes and skin (Hecht, 1998). Other insecticides are red pepper, Bacilluss Thuringienisis (B+), and garlic juice. B+ comes from a naturally occuring bacteria. You can make your own insecticide if you mix 2 tablespoons of red pepper and six drops of dish detergentent into a gallon of water, let it sit overnight, and then stir it throughly. That can protect cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, and collards (Long, 1998).

There are many different kinds of insecticides. One group of these are organic insecticides. There are three different types of organic insecticides. Each type has different insecticides, but they are all dangerous. Some of them are replacing each other and some are so dangerous they’re trying to be phased out.

Some people are trying to help by using natural things that don’t have so many risks. CONCLUSION I found that this topic was kind of hard to research. At first, I thougght it would be easy, but it wasn’t. I found most of my information in books and encyclopedias because the internet and periodicals barely had anything I could use. Bibliography 1.

Ackerman, Lowell: http://www.pet- zone.com/petzone/health/dog/10043.htm. Pet Healthe Initiative, Inc. 1996 2. HAMM, James G.: The Handbook of Pest Control. Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited, 1982.

3. Hecht, David Badiane. “Benign Urine” New Internationalist, Junew 1998, 12-16 4. Long, Cheryl. “Defeat Pests with Hot Pepper” Organic Gardining, March 98:10 5. “DDT” The World Book Encyclopedia.

1999 6. “Insecticides” The World Book Encyclopedia. 1999 7. “Pesticides” Webster’s New World Encyclopedia, 1992.