Japanese Immigrants And The Following Generations Had To Endure

.. the states farm crop.(Klimova,3) Autin Anson of the Grower-Shipper Association of Salinas, California, made this statement while lobbying for the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans: “Were charged with wanting to get rid of the Japs for selfish reasons. We might as well be honest. We do. Its a question of whether the white man lives on the Pacific Coast or the brown men. They came into this valley to work, and they stayed to take over.”(Spickard,97) This terribly racist statement explains on e conflict over the limited resources available.

The dominant group wants the competition removed and deep the minority group with as little as possible. Lieutenant General John L. Dewitt, the head of the Western Defensive Command, Major General Allen W. Gullion, and other high ranking officers, all guided by their own racism, also campaigned for the Japanese American Population to be removed. Dewitt said: “A Japs a Jap.

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They are a dangerous element, whether loyal or not. there is no way to determine their loyalty..it makes no difference whether he is an American; theoretically he is still Japanese, and you cant change him..you cant change him by giving him a piece of paper.”(Spickard,98) They claimed the evacuation was a military necessity; however, such a necessity was never demonstrated. The Department of Justice defended the rights and liberties of U*S. citizens guaranteed by the constitution of the United States.(Klimova,3) J. Edgar Hoover also opposed the mass evacuation. He argued that all the dangerous Japanese Americans were already jailed.(Spickard,98) Dispite the protest, the Roosevelt administration supported the evacuation. On the 19th of February, 1942, “President Roosevelt signed Executive Order No.9066, authorizing the War Department to prescribe military areas and to exclude any or all persons from these areas.”(McWillans,108) “More than 110,000Japanese..were removed from their homes and placed in “relocation centers” in Arkansas, Arizona, Eastern California, Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming.”(Parrillo,289) They lost everything they owned.

Joseph Kurihara was a Japanese American soldier in the US Army and was for Americanization prior to the evacuation, he recalls the Terminal Island evacuation: “It was cruel and harsh. To pack and evacuate in forty-eight hours..mothers bewildered with children crying..Did the government of the United States intend to ignore their rights regardless of their citizenship?”(Myer,3) Life in the internment camps was hard. They had to endure unsanitary conditions.(Asin,1) Most of the imprisoned Japanese Americans conformed and followed orders. There were some that protested what was being done to them, but their resistance came very late.(Spickard,108) Kurihara was one of the few that practiced defiance. He eventually renounced his US citizenship.(Myer,4) These people that openly expressed their new hatred for America as a result of the injustices they suffered were known as the “no-nos”. On the other side, there were those that desperately wanted to prove their loyalty to the United States.

In January 1943, The US War Department announced the formation of a segregated regiment. Theses Nisei volunteered for the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (RCT) to fight for their country. They joined forces with the 100th Infantry Battalion, formed in May 1942 and were also Nisei volunteers, in Europe. The 442nd RCT eventually consisted of the 2nd, 3rd, and 100th Battalions; the 522nd field Artillery Battalion; the 232nd engineering Company; the 206th Army Band; Anti-Tank Company; Cannon Company; and Service company.(Research,1) The famous 442nd RCT were the most decorated unit in US military history for its size and length of service. In total, there were 18,000 individual decorations for bravery, 9,500 purple hearts, and seven Presidential Distinguished Unit citations.(Research,2) After W.W.II, Japanese Americans were demoralized and in economic disarray.

Because all of their possessions and property had been taken away, they simply had to start all over again. There were emotional and psychological consequences for the Nisei. It took decades for them to overcome a lingering shame.(Spickard,134) There is also a generation and cultural gap between the Nisei and Sansei. The Sansei are in a Quandary over their identification with their “dual cultural heritage”. Their parents push then to become “white and to “subscribe to the legacies of American society”.

Yet they are told by their major social environment that they are not white.(Miyoshi,20) The Japanese Americans have indeed prospered since the 1940s. The Nisei and Sansei strongly emphasized conformity, aspiration, competitiveness, discipline, and encouraged the Yonsei (fourth-generation) and Gosei (fifth-generation) to higher education. Their numbers are increasing in the professional fields. The higher education achievements equate into their having higher incomes than any other ethnic group, including all whit Americans.(Parrillo,294) The Japanese Americans have come a long way. Bus ofcourse some prejudice and discrimination still exists today. The”contemporary depictions of the Japanese tourists and samurai businessman..offer little of value to clarifying the identities and realities of [Japanese Americans]..these stereotypes continue to shape how they are perceived.”(Kiag,2) Early Japanese immigrants came to the United States in search of economic prosperity. They were met with hostility, prejudice, and discrimination. Everything they worked so hard for was taken and their rights violated.

The dominant group demonstrated total economic exploitation. After enduring such injustices and hardships, many are now enjoying the life the Issei dreamed of for their families. Bibliography Work Cited Parillo, Vincent N. Strangers to These Shors: Race and Ethnitc Relations in the United States. Needham Heights, : Massachuchetts: 2000, 287-289.

Klimova, Tatiana A. “Internment of Japanese Americans: Military Necessity or Racial Prejudice.” Old Dominion University. 1-9 (5/2/00) Asia, Ask. “Linking The Past to Present: Asian Americans Then and Now.” The Asia Society 1996. 1-3 (5/1/00 Spickard, Paul R. Japanese Americans: The transformation and Formation of an Ethnic Group. New Yourk:1996,93-159 McWilliams, Carey.

Prejudice Japanese Americans: Symbol of racial Intolerance. boston: 1945,106-190. Myer, Dillon S. “Joseph Yoshisuke Kurihara.” Upprinted Americans 1971. 1-5 (5/1/00) Asin, Stefanie.”Poignand Memories.” Houston Chronicle 7/31/95.1-3 5/2/00 Reaseach Center.”research on 100th/442nd reginent conbat team.:NJAHS.1-2 5/2/00 Miyoshi, Nubu.:Idenity Crisis of the Sansei.”Sansei legacy project 3/13/98.1-21 5/1/00 Kiang, Peter.” Understanding the Perception of Asian Americans.” Asian Society1997.1-2 5/2/00.