John

John Dryden John Dryden was England’s most outstanding and controversial writer for the later part of the seventeenth century, dominating the literary world as a skilled and versatile dramatist, a pioneer of literary criticism, and a respected writer of the Restoration period. With Dryden’s great literary and critical influence on the English society during the Restoration period he has made a name for himself, which will be studied and honored for years to come. John Dryden was born in Northamptonshire, in 1631. His parents were Erasmus Dryden and Mary Pickery. They were both from wealthy and respected families in Northamptonshire.

The Drydens were known for wisdom and great tradition all over England and were well-equipped with large estates and vast lands (Ward 5). Dryden’s father, Erasmus, was a justice of the peace during the usurpation, and was the father of fourteen children; four sons, and ten daughters. The sons were John, Erasmus, Henry, and James; the daughters were Agness, Rose, Lucy, Mary, Martha, Elizabeth, Hester, Hannah, Abigail, and France (Kinsley 34). Dryden was also a religious man. He had as much faith in the Lord as he did in his pen.

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He belonged to the Church of England all his life until converting to Catholicism due to the change of the throne. He was baptized at All Saints Church in Aldwinule, Northamptonshire ten days after his birth (Hopkins 75). Dryden, growing into a young man, began his education in his hometown. There he took the basic classes. He furthered his education at Westminister School in London.

Here, he attended school for about twelve hours a day, beginning and ending at six. At Westminister he studied history, geography, and study of the Scripture, plus all the basics. After Westminister he Cunningham 2 attended Cambridge University (Hopkins 14). While attending Cambridge University, he excelled to the top of his class and was a standout student. John Dryden was the greatest and most represented English man of letters of the last quarter of the seventeenth century.

From the death of Milton in 1674 to his own in 1700, no other writer can compare with him in versatility and power (Sherwood 39). He was in fact a versatile writer, with his literary works consisted of tragedy, comedy, heroic play, opera, poetry, and satire. Although he did write most of his important original poems to serve some passing political purpose, he made them immortal by his literary genius (Miner 3). John Dryden was the type of man who was always busy with some great project. He would never put full time and concentration into his work. He would quickly finish a project, careless of perfection, and hurry off to begin another, which was not a tempting deal on either the author’s side nor the reader’s side because Dryden lived in a time where there were few well-printed works (Hopkins 1).

So much of his work consisted of numerous errors, misprints, and lost pages. Several critics have attempted to revise and correct his work but usually for the worse ( Harth 3). Despite his popularity during the Restoration and even today, little is known about John Dryden except what is in his works. Because he wrote from the beginning through the end of the Restoration period, many literary scholars consider the end of the Restoration period to have occurred with Dryden’s death in 1700 (Miner 2). Surviving Dryden was his wife Lady Elizabeth and there were three sons, to whom he had always been a loving and careful father. John, his oldest son, followed his father in death only three years later in April of 1700.

His wife, the “Widow of a poet,” died shortly after his death in the summer of 1714 at the age of 78 (Bredvold 314). Dryden certainly attained his goal of popularity especially after his death. He became this Cunningham 3 through his “achievements in verse translations, the first English author to depend for a livelihood directly on the reading public and opening the future of profitable careers for great novelists during the next two centuries” (Frost 17). The Restoration period was a time of great literature and outstanding writers, but, with all the talent in this century, there were also many problems. The Restoration was an angry time in literary history.

Writers threw harsh blows at one another, not with fists but with paper and ink. It was an age of plots, oaths, vows and tests: they were woven into the “fabric of everyday life, and hardly a person in England escaped being touched by them” (Hammond 131). During this time he wrote about what was going on in life activities quite often in his work. At this time there was a major controversy over the conversion from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism. Dryden’s church was in a strange and uncomfortable position. Since the time of the Restoration it had been an underground organization because it was regarded as the enemy of the English monarchy.

Some of the members have been accused, and others falsely accused, of setting plots against the crown (Hopkins 85). In 1663, Dryden, “under the cloud of some personal disgrace,” married Sir Robert Howard’s sister, Lady Elizabeth. The marriage provided no financial advantages or much compatibility for the couple, but Dryden did gain some social status because of her nobility. Because of his social success, Dryden was made a member of the Royal Society that same year. Since he was a non-participating member and did not pay his dues, his membership was later revoked.

In 1664, he wrote a poem honoring his brother-in-law, Sir Robert Howard, with whom Dryden remained involved personally and professionally for some time. In 1668, he was Cunningham 4 named Poet Laureate and was offered a share in the Theater Royal’s profits in exchange for his plays. This is where he earned a large portion of his income, and ensured his financial stability for the next several years. However, in 1689 when William and Mary took the throne they replaced John Dryden, a Catholic; and made Thomas Shadwell, a Protestant, the new Poet Laureate (Verrall 6). John Dryden was a poet for about forty years.

He was formally known as a “public poet” because a great amount of his poetry dealt with public issues (Harth 3). The explanation for Dryden’s late development as a poet was due to the simple fact that he had nothing to say. In Dryden’s poems, the descriptions he gave avoided unique, concrete details; he preferred general terms. When he described men and women, he gave his attention to moral qualities , not physical appearance. He usually glorified the lower social class and put the upper social class in a shadow (Sherwood 7).

Many of Dryden’s poems were congested with printing errors and misspelled words, although, the reasons for this were not totally his fault. There was not a great printing process during this time and many careless mistakes in printing were caused by neglectful workers (Sargeant 10). John Dryden is a poet who left a firm impression of his character in this world; he is known as a public figure, respected literary critic, popular dramatist, and strong supporter of religion and politics (Salvaggio 13). Dryden’s poetry has been divided into two time periods of his career. The first was during the Restoration period and ended in 1667. He did not write another poem for fourteen years; during this time he was writing plays and critiques.

The second period began during the later part of his life and ended in 1681 (Harth 3). Some of Dryden’s more popular poems “The Cock and the Fox,” “All For Love,” “Antony and Cleopatra,” “Absalom and Achitophal,” and his most famous “Mac Cunningham 5 Flecknoe.” In the poem “All For Love,” it portrays the love story between Cleopatra, the breath-taking, beautiful, Queen of the Nile and her lover Antony. He also knew that when writing this poem it would be nothing new to the poetic world (Dryden 14). “All For Love” is a pale, beautiful play. The theme “All For Love” was meant to be that “punishment inexorably follows vice and illicit love.

Actually, the motivation of the play is a conflict between reason and passion, and it is this conflict that makes “All For Love” truly representative of the Restoration Period and the battle of ideas that settled beneath” (Dryden 25). The greatest of …