Lithosphere Notes on the lithosphere- (rock sphere) Upper most part is crust of earth. Compiled of rocks of outer crust. Outermost shell. Upper part- rocks we see at and near the earths surface. Crust is 5 to 10 km thick under most oceans and 24 to 60 km thick under the continents. The lithosphere under the crust is solid, dense material. (more dense than surface materials). Lithosphere 100-200 km. Notes on the aesthenosphere- zone beneath the lithosphere. Thick like tar.

Weak because of high teperatures at that depth. Density- 2.7-3.4 to about 12. Notes on the hydrosphere- (Water-bearing) Too small due to the irregularity of upward projection. Density-1.1 Notes on the Atmosphere- only 10 km thick layer of gas which is the basis of human life. Dens. 0.0.

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Reactions within- litho to hydro, none besides movement of sand and other free floating particles, absorbtion. Hydro to atmo, evaporation, precipitation, mater, energy, gases, salt, oxygen, carbon dioxide. Litho to atmo, none besides precipitation. Silicon tetrahedron- tetrahedron, a shape of a crystal. If a quartz crystal, (SiO) is broken, then it would shatter.

A feldspar (Al,Si,O,Ca,Na) is split, it would evenly cleave. Of all rocks- O=46% Si=28%. Basic structure- 4 oxygen, one Si, i n the shape of a pyramid. Such a foundation is a Si tetrahedron. Silicates are the most common family of minerals. Tetrahedrons- Si + O2= 75% of all. Rocks are classified- by how they are formed.

Igneous rocks- are usually not porous. They solidify from a molten state. Are further classified as plutonic (intrusive) and volcanic (extrusive). Volcanic solidify on the earths surface. Plutonic solidify below the earths surface.

Metamorphic rocks solidify (changed form) are se! dimentary or igneous rocks in which the minerals or texture or both have been changed by high pressures and temperatures without melting. Sedimentary Rocks- are made up of sediment (rock and mineral fragments) carried over the earths surfarce mostly by streams and deposited in layers on the ocean floor. Examples include, granite, sandstone. Air masses- Cold Fronts- The Interface at which cold air replaces warm air. Cold Fronts usually come after the warm fronts in such a system.

In fact, it is usually followed by rain. Formed by air flowing over the land and ocean that situates in the tropics, continents, oceans. CT, CP, MT, MP Warm fronts- the interface where warm air replaces cold air. Signified by semicircles. salinity- The number of grams of dissolved material in 1000 grams of seawater.

Salinity is usually relative to salt. In the ocean, there is approx. 35 grams of salt per thousand. It is developed by the movement of dissolved particles towards a basin of! water. Sodium and chlorine atoms make up about 85% of all. Ions of just 6 elements make up more than 99% of the ions.

Relative amounts: Chlor 55.2%; Sod 30.5; Sulfate 7.7; Magnes 3.7; Calc 1.2; Pot 1.1; All others .7 percent of all ions. Exe. 100 grams seawater, 965 grams water, 35 grams salts. Na + Cl -. Trace elements are extremely small in the development of water.

They make up the other one percent of the ions in seawater. Winds are the cheif cause of waves and ocean movements of that type. Each wave has a top, or crest. Each has a bnottom, or trough. Height equals crest minus trough.

Crest to crest legnth is wavelegnth. Time between crests is called the period. Period equals wavelegnth divided by period. Over deep water, waves with long wavelegnths travel faster than those with short wavelegnths. Long waves crashing on a beach are usually a sign of an upcoming storm.

When the water is deeper than one-half the wave legnth, the water particles move around! in circles. The diameter equals the wave height. Deeper and deeper, diameters decrease. One half legnth of wave, no detectable motion. Waves break because bottom particles are dragged on floor as upper particles race ahead. The result is a breaking wave.

Waves bend at beaches to become parallel because when water is shallower, the waves slow down, thus giving the oblique angled waves a chance to catch up. Currents are caused by winds at the oceans surface. The sun is the basic source of energy for ocean currents. It is the wind that turns the suns radiant energy into the kinetic energy of the currents. The water is pushed ahead of the wind that blows it.

Density currents- or deep currents flow because of the differences in densitys from one place in the sea to another. The density of seawater depends on temperature and salinity. The transfer of matter and energy both change the salinity and temperature. They effect climate in that equatorial currents make ! the water warmenr and polar currents make the water colder. Arctic waters are currential because of their temp.

They are cold, they sink to the bottom, they slide down the slopes. When one source of deep water is is forced below another due to its density (structured by salinity and temperature), it rushes down a slope of land and thus produces a strong current of water. Stable air- When the atmosphere resists to either rise or sink. It develops subtle clouds such as stratus which produce a long, steady rain. When air continues to move andf gains speed as if it were given a slight push upward or downward, it is unstable.

Such a cloud form, is the leading factor for clouds like cumulonimbus. Funnel systems- N.H. L. N.H. H.

S.H. L. SH. H. Cyclone- Inward flowing of air as it converges toward the center. Anticyclone- Where the wind spirals outward form a point of H.

Clouds are formed by the cooling of air as it rises on condensation nuclei. Cl! imate- The history of the weather over a long period of time over a certain area. Energy the earth recieves from the sun is the single most important factor controlling the earths climate .It is known as insolation. The astmosphere itself is also a vital factor. The atmosphere causes the greenhouse effect.

The things that cause climate is the atmosphere which are caused by climate, position on earth, seasons, moisture, land, water and topography. Deserts usually at areas of high pressures that are situated usually on the eastern sides of continents. Cold ocean currents flow toward the western shores of continents. Western part of high pressure system is usually moist. Northern flow usually drier.

Climate is also affected by the position near oceans. There are m,oderate temps near the ocean all year round, because it cools the landin the summer and heats it in the winter. Evapotranspiration- evaporation and transpiration combination. The only means by which capil! lary water can be removed from the soil. Evapotranspiration is difficult to measure accurately. Temperature is a main factor of greater ET. Capillary Water- Water stored in the form of tiny droplets that are held together by the molecular attraction between the water and soil particles.

Cannot be drawn down by gravity. It can only be removed by evaporation into the air through soil openings or absorbtion by plant roots. It allows plants to survive long periods between rainfalls. The amount of water saturated in the soil depends on the size of the water particles. WIth smaller particles, more capillary water can be held, but it takes longer to s …