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.. des to bottle feed in order to give her infant the best “American start” is giving of herself in an equally healthy, but different way. The parent-infant (father as well as mother) relationship is a continuing process of adaptation to one another’s needs, and parents should be aware that all is not lost if early contact is not possible. However, it should emphasized that it should be the mother’s choice to determine how much time she spends with her infant in the hospital. “When it is possible for parents to be together with their babies, in privacy, for the first hour, and throughout the hospital stay, the most beneficial and supportive environment for the beginning of the bonding process is established”, (Kennell and Klaus 57).

According to Oaklander, “A most important behavioral system that serves to bind mother and infant together is the mothers interest in touching her baby” (Oaklander 151). Eye-to-Eye contact serves the purpose of giving a real identity or personification to the baby, as well as getting a rewarding feedback of the mother (Oaklander 45). The mother’s voice is another important element as well as entertainment. Although the infant moves in rhythm to his mother’s voice and thus may be driven to be affected by her. On the other hand, the infant’s movements according to Oaklander, may reward the mother and stimulate her to continue (Oaklander 136). Another important element is odor. Rolland Macfarlene in The Relationship Between Mother ad Neonate, found that by the 5th day of life, breastfeeding infants can discriminate their mother own breast pad from the breast pads from that of other mothers with significant reliability (Macfarlene 63).

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Brazelton commenting on the bonding process says: The complexity of available systems for the mother to use in making the initial attachment to the baby are obviously a kind of fail-safe system for assuring the newborn of a caring environment. We should be aware of the richness of these and utilize as many as we can as we try to lock a new mother into her baby’s uniqueness (Brazelton 79). According to Claire Berman in her book Adult Children of Divorce Speaks out, parents need to understand that the bonding which will take place in the earlier stages of the infants life is very important in determining the overall type of individual that child will grow up to be (Berman 16). Mark A. Stewart in Raising a Hyperactive Child, says: ..There are some homes in which children are raised so permissively or so haphazardly that they are never taught how to listen to someone else. Neither are they taught how to stick to a task, or how to control their impulsive behavior because there never was a great bond created between the child and parents..(Stewart 23). Stewart continues by pointing out that these children will, of course be at a disadvantage when they venture outside the home, to school or to other children’s home or in other situations where they are injected to exert some control over their behavior (Stewart 23).

Stewart also stresses the importance of parents teaching their children how to socialize and behave in public. He says, “if there is a bond between the parents and child there will never be a problem when it comes to one parent getting the child to do what?s right” (Stewart 24). If a child has been brought up in a very unstructured environment without a reliable pattern to depend on, in a chaotic home atmosphere, he will tend to exhibit some of the traits of hyperactivity. As stated by Stewart there is a widespread but mistaken assumption that behavior determined by inheritance, or by damage to the brain cannot be influences. He believes that a mother’s love is one of the most powerful of all influences when it comes to what the child will be in the future (Stewart 30).

In dealing with the problem of disobedience in the child, Stewart goes on to say: The first and most important step in management is, that whatever a mother says, always must be done?. For this reason, do not require too much; and on no account allow your child to do at one time, what you have forbidden him to do at another (Stewart 127). Claire Berman explains that it is not only the mother-child bonding that is important, but also the father-mother-child that really counts. She explains that parents need to understand that their bonding should not be dissolve after 2,3,5 or even 10 years, it is something that should last a lifetime and be taken into consideration at every bend along the long and dread pathway of life (Berman 21). According to Susan Meyers in her book Who Will Take the Children? makes it clear that no one factor can be held responsible for shaping the kind of person one becomes or the ways in which an individual tends to look at things (Meyers 30). She further explains that many elements impact upon people’s lives, from the genes we inherit to the families we are born into and the communities in which the child grows up (Meyers 31).

As pointed out by Berman, “Divorce is one of the worst things that can happen between parents during the early years of a child?s life, not only can divorce break all the bonds which were previously established, but is something that can leave the children with lots of baggage.”(Meyers 30) Berman later points out that when children learn that a vow or bond can be broken (and divorce writes the end to the marital vow), they face life with uncertainty. When they do not receive the nurturing that?s needed, they are likely to enter into healthy relationships (Berman 35). Berman states the case of a thirty-four-year-old woman whose parents divorced when she was thirteen. The woman asks, “when your parents betray you and break the bond between them and their child, then who do you trust?” Is it a rhetorical question? She goes on to explain, “for years I had the feeling that everyone was out to get me. It took me a long time to trust anyone.” (Berman 36) Maybe now people (parents) will come to realize that bonding does not only refer to mutual affection between a baby and an adult.

But it is the phenomenon whereby adults become committed by a one-way flow of concern and affection for whom they have cared during the first months and years of life. Bibliography Berman, Claire. Adult Children of Divorce Speak Out. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. Brazelton, Bob. The Early Mother-Infant Adjustment.

Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Co. 1973. Kennell, John and Marshall Klaus. Parent-Infant Bonding. Missouri: The C.V. Mosby Company, 1976. Macfarlene, Rolland.

The Relationship between Mother & Neonate. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Mercer, Joe. Mother’s Response to Their Infants with Defects. New York: Charles B. Slack Inc., 1974. Meyers, Susan.

Who Will Take the Children? Indianapolis/New – York: Bobbe-Mervil, 1983. Oaklander, Violet. Windows to our Children. Utah: Real People- Press, 1978. Robertson, J. A Baby in the Family: Loving and being loved.

London: Penguin Books, Ltd., 1982. Stewart, Mark A. Raising a Hyperactive Child. London: Harper and Row Publishers, 1973.

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VISUAL FIELD POSITION AND TYPE OF STIMULI ON THE STROOP EFFECT
The Effect of Visual Field Position and
Type of Stimuli on the Stroop Effect
Reynold Hicks
University of Tampa
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to test the effect of lateralization and congruency on reaction time to name colors. This was done using a computer program provided by The University of Mississippi. This effect is called the stroop effect. Results showed that it was neither lateralization nor congruency had a significant effect on reaction time, but the interaction of these two variables that created a significant change in the time needed to recognize colors. It is believed that this is due to the different hemispheric functions of the brain. Studies that are similar to this in nature help to better understand how the brain functions and it capabilities.
The Effect of Visual Field Position and Type of Stimuli on the Stroop Effect
Psychologists have been interested in how the human brain works and how stimuli are processed and interpreted. The brain is a highly complex organ that is the center for all our human functions. The more we know about how it works and how efficient the brain is, the better psychologists will be able to analyze human behavior.
The stoop test has been used for many years to investigate how we process information. Laterality is one of the factors in which the stroop test can be used to investigate. Many researchers have examined laterality in the Stroop task. Dyer (1973) showed that presenting the word and the color separately to the left and right fixation did not alter the Stroop effect. Interference and facilitation were still factors (MacLeod, 1991). There are many instances of the left hemisphere showing more interference during this kind of testing. Aine and Harter (1984) studied this same effect and found that activity associated with interference occurs in the left hemisphere, effecting the response time and error-rate measured. Similar results were found in a study conducted by Posner, Walker, Friedrich, and Rafal; (Citedin, Macleod, 1991) they found that the left parietal and frontal lobe may be involved in disengaging attention. Many other variables such as gender, bilingual ness, even handedness have been proven to alter the Stroop effect.

This experiment investigated how visual field position and differing stimuli influenced the reaction time in naming ink colors. Based on the information above and past studies, these hypotheses were formulated. The time to name the ink colors will vary with visual field position. The slowest time should occur when the stimulus appears in the right visual field because of its association with the left side of the brain. The time to name congruent stimuli should be faster then the time to name incongruent stimuli. The time to name ink color will vary with both visual field position and type of stimuli. Time to name ink colors for congruent stimuli should not vary much with visual field but the time to name ink color of incongruent should increase as the stimuli gets color to the right visual field.
Methods
Participants
This study contained a total of fifteen students from the University of Tampa’s upper level psychology class. Thirteen of the participants were female and the remaining two were male. In addition to this class thirty six students from other classes were also used in this study.
Materials
I-Mac G3 computers and a program from Old Mississippi University were used to test the lateralized Stroop effect from http://psychexp.olemiss.edu. The name of the actual program was the Lateralized Stroop Experiment. The stimuli used by this program were colors that appeared laterally on a computer screen. Not only did the colors appear laterally but in differing hemispheres on the computer screen. The colors were in the form of written words. For example the word “red” was shown in green font. This was be an example of an incongruent stimulus because the written color word did not agree with the font color shown. An example of a congruent stimuli is be the word “red” in red font.

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Design and Procedure
The experiment had a 3×2 design with two independent variables. The first independent variable was visual field position. The words appeared to the right, left, or middle of the field of vision established by a pulsating focal point used to initiate each trial The second independent variable was the type of stimuli (congruent or non-congruent). The appearance and screen location for each trial is randomly assigned. The dependent variable was the reaction time it takes to submit a response. The dependent variable (response time) was calculated by the time between a word’s appearance and a key press that indicated the font color of the stimulus into the computer. “2” represents the color red, “4” represents blue, “6” represents green, and “8” represents yellow.

First the website http://psychex.olemiss.edu was connected to via the internet. After an in depth overview of the experiment is read by the participants, each will have to agree to a consent form. Then practice for the experiment is begun. This practice helps the participants to become familiar with the number- color codes that are necessary for the program to record the reaction time of each response. After the practice trials are completed and proficiency is proven, a number-color code is acquired the actual experiment can be conducted.
The participants elected to complete 72 trials. A correct trial run was recorded and admissible for inclusion in the PsychExps database if it was correct. Each trial begins with a pulsation plus sign that serves to establish a focal point on the computer screen. Research participants press a key when they are ready for a word to be presented. Next there is a delay of 1 to 3 seconds before the word appears. When the words appear they are written vertically on the screen. The central axis of the word is designed to be approximately 3 degrees of visual angle to the right or left of the fixation point on lateral presentations, though the actual visual angle will vary depending on monitor size and the distance of research participants from the monitor. This should be a constant in the experiment with each participant about 11 inches from the monitor and a standard size monitor. On the central presentation, the word axis is at 0 degrees relative to the fixation point. Display times are fixed at 150 msec to assure that laterally presented words are experienced in a single visual hemisphere.
With four words (red, blue, Green, and yellow) that are printed in a word-color congruent form or non-congruent form appearing at any of three positions (right, left, or center), there are 24 possible stimulus events. The reaction time type of stimuli is measured and recorded for each trial. After the experiment is completed the result must be printed out and analyzed.


Results
Participants responded to congruent and incongruent stimuli in three different visual fields. Means were calculated for each participant in each of the 6 conditions. Averages were calculated for the conditions and they can be found in Table 1. The data were subjected to a 3×2 repeated analysis of variance and one significant effect (F (2.98) =3.74; p