.. e Spanish feudal patron-client relationship. Militant peasant and workers’ groups were formed during the U.S. occupation despite the repressive situation. A movement for Philippine independence, involving diverse groups, continued throughout the occupation. A Commonwealth government was established in 1935 to allow limited self-rule but this was interrupted by the Second World War and the Japanese occupation.
The guerilla movement against Japanese fascism was led mainly by Socialists and communists, known by their acronym, HUKS. Shortly after the end of the Second World War, flag independence was regained although the U.S. imposed certain conditions, including the disenfranchisement of progressive political parties, the retention of U.S. military bases and the signing of economic agreements allowing the U.S. continued control over the Philippine economy.
The Spanish and American colonization had instituted in our minds the values and characteristics that we possess at the present time. NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS BAHALA NA Individuals regard their success or failure as to luck, fate, God, or the spirits, expressed by the phrase Bahala na (“What will be, will be”). HIYA Filipinos will go to great lengths to avoid causing others shame (hiya). To be criticized as walang hiya (shameless, insensitive) is a potent censure. UTANG NA LOOB A debt of gratitude, honor, or blood, this term literally means “inner debt” or “heart debt”.
Filipinos live within a network of two-way obligations: requesting and accepting a favor implies a willingness to repay it. PAKIKISAMA Closely linked with the desire for social acceptance and approval, pakikisama (conformity, camaraderie) manifests itself in-groups of all kinds and ages regardless of class. To maintain pakikisama, Filipinos will yield to group opinion, subjugate ill-feeling beneath a pleasant demeanor, avoid speaking harshly or saying “No” directly, and will only criticize or reprimand very tactfully. AMOR PROPIO Filipinos are very sensitive to criticism, insults, and hurt feelings, whether real or imagined, and they can become implacable enemies for reasons that Westerners would deem trivial. Hiya, utang na loob, and pakikisama all affect an individual’s amor propio (self-esteem). It demands conformity to approved behavior patterns. It can also lead to showing off, especially in the presence of peers and subordinates.
ORIGINAL FILIPINO LIFE STYLES And because of the colonization of many countries in the Philippines, the Filipino’s developed values that made them closer to their fellow-Filipinos and made them a Nation-loving people. THE FAMILY Filipino families are much closer than those of the West. The environment is highly personalized. Children are brought up to be polite, cooperative, modest, and religious. Communal feeling is encouraged.
Upon marrying, newlyweds usually set up their own home, but family ties remain strong. The husband is nominally head of the household, but the wife runs the home and manages the finances. They make important decisions together. FAMILY OBLIGATIONS Sharing both good fortune and crisis, the clan operates as disciplinary mechanism, placement agency, and social assistance program. It provides its members with tremendous security, so that to be poor in the Philippines is somewhat different from poor in the West.
In the absence of a public welfare system, the clan eases the impact of illness or unemployment. When a Filipino needs help, he can depend on his family; likewise, he can be called upon to help others in need. There’s a great deal of sharing. Unlike Westerners, who draw strength from independence, Filipinos like the security of this interdependence existence, with its close bonds bred of mutual responsibility. KINSHIP The family is enlarged through marriage.
Filipinos count blood relatives down to fourth cousins, and the relatives of in-laws are considered family. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Filipinos place great emphasis on personal loyalty, and the network of allegiance and reciprocal obligation extends to society as a whole. Powerful patrons provide material help, employment, influence, and protection, and are repaid with personal services ranging from specific tasks to political support. THE FILIPINA It has been suggested that Filipino women are “more equal” within their society than Western women are in theirs, a status which predates colonial times. Women in the Philippines maintain a very high profile in public life, from the president down to barangay level.
GROUP ORIENTATION Filipinos by nature dislike doing things alone, whether at work or leisure. Bayanihan is the communal spirit that enables Filipinos to come together and help each other at a moment’s notice in times of need. HIERARCHY Polite forms of address are used toward those of higher social rank, elders, and strangers. In conversation, a Filipino continually shifts from high to low status, depending on whom he’s talking to. In Pilipino, it’s common for “my poor and insignificant self” to address “your honored and exalted self”. Awareness of rank and status is reflected in the universal use of titles, e.g. Attorney Anolin, Mayor Quilala, Doctor Albino. PERSONALIZED APPROACH The Filipino way of doing things is heavily centered on relationships.
Trust (tiwala) is a key element of camaraderie. Filipinos don’t feel comfortable in impersonal situations. In business and politics, this personalized approach too often leads to nepotism, cronyism, and favoritism; ability and merit are often secondary. Behavior depends on what others will think, say, or do, whenever they’ll be pleased or displeased. It’s aimed at maintaining “face,” smooth interpersonal relationships, group affiliations, and a strong personal alliance network. Typical Western frankness is considered tactless.
In distasteful situations, they avoid confrontation by using respectful language, soft voice, gentle manner, and indirect approaches such as employing intermediaries, euphemisms, allusions, ambiguous expressions, and oblique comments. GENERALIZATION In common with other peoples, acculturation has marked the history of the Philippines. Our ancient cultural heritage is result of the interplay and interpenetrating of diverse natural influences. To the credit of our ancestors, they borrowed the cultures of other peoples but improved on it as they adapted to their everyday life. They used the foreign culture to enrich the existing one.
Each generation made its own imprint, and the resulting culture is uniquely our own. Jocano(1965), our leading anthropologists, stated this idea that-“Each passing generation leaves part of wisdom and experience for the succeeding generation to learn to use in adjusting itself to the changing modes of time.” This is the reason why we Filipinos embraced the cultures of the western colonizers such as the Spaniards and the Americans, because it is like an instinct that we need to embrace their culture in order to adapt and to survive along with their dominance over our race. The three centuries of the Spanish occupation that contributed Christianity, have affected all aspects of life. Spanish culture developed the intellectual capacity of the Filipino and brought about the flowering of the arts and sciences. Spanish influences were felt in literature and music, and the sciences like pharmacy, medicine, and engineering. Spain established the first university, the University of Sto.
Tomas in 1911. She introduced the art of printing in the country, brought to the Filipino the Castillan language, which enabled young Filipinos to seek education in Europe, and make progress in the technology available to them. Mass education and the Democratic way of life may be considered America’s greatest contributions to the Philippines. Some critics, political and social, view the American influence as resulting in the development of American Imperialism, in the Filipino’s being trained to depend on imported products and to view anything foreign as their own. In short, the Filipino developed a colonial mentality. The Americanization of Pepe and Pilar (peddled as modernization) transformed consumption habits towards a preference for US products, or for that matter, anything imported.
It re-oriented Filipino aspirations towards the American way of life. Some symptoms of colonial mentality: a bowl of plastic apples, grapes and pears on the dining room buffet an imitation Louis Vuitton bag and Gloria Vanderbilt jeans plastic evergreen trees laden with absorbent cotton-‘snow’ for Christmas the log cabin steakhouse Broadway plays emoted in a studied New York cum British accent the search for local counterparts to Hollywood stars or the rise and fall of Diomedes Maturan as the Perry Como of the Philippines always saying ‘ang sarap parang mansanas!’ getting a nose lift and a bust lift carpets and upholstered sofas copied from Better Homes and Gardens (for the dust and heat of the tropics) shopping trips to Cash and Carry (and Dau and nepo Mart) for PX goods putting an American (or Japanese) brand name on a local product so that it will sell following the dictates of fashion magazines through spring, summer, fall and winter (thank God, the air gets cooler around December) dyeing one’s hair with auburn streaks insisting that the maid speak to the baby in English preferring to be an American citizen (Hodel survey 1960) or wanting to have been born in another country (UP survey of schoolchildren) hoping the US will intervene in ousting a homegrown dictator This is a very limited and narrow point of view. This point of view has led us into developing an image of ourselves as devoid of real cultural tradition and values as a people. In short, the Filipino culture is a well-bred culture, a mixture of world-class society that is capable and competent to be even more superior than the world powers. Bibliography M. N. Francisco and F.
M. C. Arriola 1987. The history of the Burgis. GFC Books Quezon City Bong Barrameda’s Pinoy Trivia Vol.
1, Anvil Publishing, 1993 Manila Philippine History and Government by Gregorio F. Zaide and Sonia M. Zaide A. Bustos and S. Espiritu.
Psychological, Anthropological, and Social Foundations of Education: Philippine Culture.Katha Publishing Co., Inc. 1996, Quezon City http://pubweb.acns.nwu.edu/~flip/history.html http://tribungpinoy.simplenet.com/kasaysayan http://www.philippine.org/ph-topic-links/phcult.ht ml M. L. Doronila ph.D. Filipino Culture and Heritage.
Publishers Inc. 1989 Quezon City.