The History Of Amsterdam

.. quantity. The Bible was no longer exclusive property of Catholics. The Catholic church made its disapproval clear, urging strong punishment upon Calvinists. Amsterdam, however, adopted a laissezfaire attitude.

According to Michael Grey: Very little was done in Amsterdam. There was no wish to shatter the comfortable relationship between the city fathers and the Calvinists, at the behest of the Catholic Bishops.. who, technically, held pastoral authority over the country . This was an early indication of Amsterdams inedpendence, in comparison with its fellow cities. This relaxed attitude led to problems such as the Anabaptists uprising of 1535. These prophets of doom were an extremist Protestant cult, whosieged Amsterdams town hall in order to convert the city residents.

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Amsterdam had accepted the Anabaptists prior to this, but when the civic rule was openly challenged, severe punishment was given. Many rioters heads were placed upon the city gates after decapitation, as warning to other heretics! The uprising led to a period of Protestant repression. Naturally, the forbidden teachings of Calvinism were met with widespread curiosity. It gained momentum, gaining support from wealthy merchants and even liberal Catholic burgomasters . This might have been partly due to the fact that the wealth of the Republics merchants could not be accommodated in a rigid caste society.

Meanwhile, Philip II (the King of Spain), became ruler of the Republic through marriage. The Protestant Reformation was strongly opposed by the Spanish Hasburg rulers, who wanted to halt its European influence Fiercely Catholic Philip vowed to end the heresy of Protestantism. Philip garrisoned the Republics cities, sent the inquisition in, and established anti-Protestant edicts. The immense opposition to this pushed Philip to tactically withdraw. He recalled his sister, Margaret, who continued her brothers manifesto.

Margaret wrestled power from civil authority and the local aristocracy, creating 14 new bishoprics across the country. Protestants petitioned Philip, to no avail. Theses tensions reached a peak during the Summer of Discontent (1564), when Protestant services were held outside the city. Riots occurred in many cities, of which Antwerp and Amsterdam suffered the worst damage. Resentful at being oppressed, groups of Calvinists smashed windows, altars, and statues, destroying much of the Catholic churchs wealth, in the Iconoclastic Fury. This continued with the destruction of priories.

The city fathers responded in typical Amsterdam fashion: in return for profitable peace, the Calvinists were granted use of an old Franciscan church . This compromise was temporarily successful. The nationwide conflict drew the attention of Phillip II once again. In 1567, Philip sent the Duke of Alva to restore Catholic control to Amsterdam. The result was the execution of many Protestants, while others fled to the UK.

The bitter Dutch Revolt followed: a war between Catholics Philip II and Alva, and Protestant William of Orange (the countrys greatest landowner) . William was a firm believer in individual freedom and religious tolerance, this made him a national symbol of Liberty. William led his troops into Brielle on the Maas, seizing the province of Holland. Alvas response was to seize Gelder and Overijssel. Despite Amsterdams growing tolerance of religious freedom, 76% of its residents remained loyally Catholic . In comparison to the rest of the Republic, Amsterdam was the only city in which the majority remained loyal for a great time period. Its eventual capitulation to William brought the return of the exiled Protestants.

Calvinists took over all churches and reigns of government in the Alteratie, the peaceful revolution that liberated the north from Spanish rule. The influx of Protestants forced Catholics to worship secretly. Although an official agreement, which tolerated the Catholic faith, was reached, the Amsterdam authorities would not allow them to have visible churches. This was the first visible sign of the important north/south divide. Many wealthy merchants relocated to Amsterdam from the Spanish-ruled south. Their financial input was invaluable to Amsterdams economy.

As the Spanish massacred Antwerp, its population fled to William, who by then controlled most of the land. The rich southeners in Amsterdam financed the expanding Dutch merchant fleet. As the citys status was raised, Amsterdam regained its place as Antwerps main economic rival. After the death of King Philip and the assassination of William of Orange, Amsterdam began to shift into further prosperity, alongside the ethos of religious tolerance for which it is now famous. In 1579, the Treaty of Utrecht was created.

This was signed by all seven northern provinces . It stipulated freedom of religious belief, plus the agreement that each province would have autonomy. The treaty allied the seven provinces against attack from Spain. This was the earliest consolidation of the northern Low Countries into an identifiable united state.In the same year, the southern provinces were united in loyalty to Spain. Their Catholic-led agreement, the Union of Arras, counterbalanced the Utrecht Treaty. This was the first official major political division between north and south, therefore being an early sign of the later separation between the two areas. Amsterdam was vying for supremacy against bigger Antwerp.

Antwerps vulnerability, caused by its dependence upon forign trade, led to its fall in 1585. As England was preoccupied with surrency changes, it had postponed trade, while the decay of the German metal industry deprived Antwerp of its commerce with central Europe. Its riches were drained. Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Haarlem actively traded with the Baltic ports, purchasing grain for the entire country. The three cities rose commercially, Amsterdam prospering further due to its location on the trade route.

By the end of the 16th century, the citys population had more than trebled to c. 38,000 . Amsterdams commercial strength enriched the United Provinces of the north, setting the foundations for the Golden Age. Bibliography 1. Aglionby, W. The Present State of the Low Countries, 1779 London: Cassell 1988 ed. 2.

Cassaro, D. A Short History of Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Historical Museum. 1990 ed. 3. Catling, C. + Pascoe, R.

Eyewitness Travel Guides: Amsterdam London: Dorling Kindersley 1994 4. Dunford, M. Amsterdam: The Rough Guide London: Rough Guides 1994 5. Gray, M. Protestants and Iconoclasts in Amsterdam, ed C.

Catling London: APA Publications Ltd 1991 6. Haafkens, N. History and Language in Amsterdam, ed A. Dink London: David Cambell 1995 7. Kemme, G.

Amsterdam: An Architectural Lesson Amsterdam: Thoth 1988 8. Roegholt, R. A Concise History of Amsterdam Amsterdam: Gemeente Amsterdam 1992 ed. 9. Rady, M. From Revolt to Independence: The Netherlands 1560 1660 London: Hodder + Stoughton 1988 ed. 10. Rosenberg, J.

et al Dutch Art + Architecture 1600 1800 London: Penguin 1988 revised ed. b. Websites http://.www.holland.com Netherlands Board of Tourism On 21/07/00 http://www.bmz.amsterdam.nl/adam/uk/intro/gesch1.h tml Amsterdam Heritage On 25/08/00 http://www.hollandring.com The Holland Ring On 19/08/00 1. Aglionby, W. The Present State of the Low Countries, 1779 London: Cassell 1988 ed.

2. Cassaro, D. A Short History of Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Historical Museum. 1990 ed. 3. Catling, C. + Pascoe, R.

Eyewitness Travel Guides: Amsterdam London: Dorling Kindersley 1994 4. Dunford, M. Amsterdam: The Rough Guide London: Rough Guides 1994 5. Gray, M. Protestants and Iconoclasts in Amsterdam, ed C.

Catling London: APA Publications Ltd 1991 6. Haafkens, N. History and Language in Amsterdam, ed A. Dink London: David Cambell 1995 7. Kemme, G.

Amsterdam: An Architectural Lesson Amsterdam: Thoth 1988 8. Roegholt, R. A Concise History of Amsterdam Amsterdam: Gemeente Amsterdam 1992 ed. 9. Rady, M. From Revolt to Independence: The Netherlands 1560 1660 London: Hodder + Stoughton 1988 ed. 10. Rosenberg, J.

et al Dutch Art + Architecture 1600 1800 London: Penguin 1988 revised ed. b. Websites http://.www.holland.com Netherlands Board of Tourism On 21/07/00 http://www.bmz.amsterdam.nl/adam/uk/intro/gesch1.h tml Amsterdam Heritage On 25/08/00 http://www.hollandring.com The Holland Ring On 19/08/00 7. Bibliography a. Books 1.

Aglionby, W. The Present State of the Low Countries, 1779 London: Cassell 1988 ed. 2. Cassaro, D. A Short History of Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Historical Museum.

1990 ed. 3. Catling, C. + Pascoe, R. Eyewitness Travel Guides: Amsterdam London: Dorling Kindersley 1994 4.

Dunford, M. Amsterdam: The Rough Guide London: Rough Guides 1994 5. Gray, M. Protestants and Iconoclasts in Amsterdam, ed C. Catling London: APA Publications Ltd 1991 6. Haafkens, N.

History and Language in Amsterdam, ed A. Dink London: David Cambell 1995 7. Kemme, G. Amsterdam: An Architectural Lesson Amsterdam: Thoth 1988 8. Roegholt, R.

A Concise History of Amsterdam Amsterdam: Gemeente Amsterdam 1992 ed. 9. Rady, M. From Revolt to Independence: The Netherlands 1560 1660 London: Hodder + Stoughton 1988 ed. 10.

Rosenberg, J. et al Dutch Art + Architecture 1600 1800 London: Penguin 1988 revised ed. b. Websites http://.www.holland.com Netherlands Board of Tourism On 21/07/00 http://www.bmz.amsterdam.nl/adam/uk/intro/gesch1.h tml Amsterdam Heritage On 25/08/00 http://www.hollandring.com The Holland Ring On 19/08/00 7. Bibliography a.

Books 1. Aglionby, W. The Present State of the Low Countries, 1779 London: Cassell 1988 ed. 2. Cassaro, D. A Short History of Amsterdam.

Amsterdam: Amsterdam Historical Museum. 1990 ed. 3. Catling, C. + Pascoe, R.

Eyewitness Travel Guides: Amsterdam London: Dorling Kindersley 1994 4. Dunford, M. Amsterdam: The Rough Guide London: Rough Guides 1994 5. Gray, M. Protestants and Iconoclasts in Amsterdam, ed C. Catling London: APA Publications Ltd 1991 6.

Haafkens, N. History and Language in Amsterdam, ed A. Dink London: David Cambell 1995 7. Kemme, G. Amsterdam: An Architectural Lesson Amsterdam: Thoth 1988 8.

Roegholt, R. A Concise History of Amsterdam Amsterdam: Gemeente Amsterdam 1992 ed. 9. Rady, M. From Revolt to Independence: The Netherlands 1560 1660 London: Hodder + Stoughton 1988 ed.

10. Rosenberg, J. et al Dutch Art + Architecture 1600 1800 London: Penguin 1988 revised ed. b. Websites http://.www.holland.com Netherlands Board of Tourism On 21/07/00 http://www.bmz.amsterdam.nl/adam/uk/intro/gesch1.h tml Amsterdam Heritage On 25/08/00 http://www.hollandring.com The Holland Ring On 19/08/00 European History.