.. e that if about one hundred and fifteen feet tall. The Roman Coluseum is one of the most commonly recognizable architectural feats the Romans erected. The Coliseum sports three tiers of columns everyone different styles the lowest level are made in the Doric style, the middle in the Ionic style, and the third are the elaborate Corinthian style. During the early Middle Ages, people began to group into small city-states or kingdoms.
Christianity spread throughout the Europe while while Islam (Muslims), which began in Mecca, spread throughout Asia and Northern Africa. Both of these proselytizing religions clashed in the Crusades when the Muslims pushed into Southern Spain and Eastern Europe. The current city of Istanbul, located in the isthmus of land between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, was originally named Byzantium, renamed for the Christian leader King Constantine, Constantinople, and finally became Istanbul when it was taken by the Muslims. Christian art of the era ordinarily has little perception of depth, in both sculpture and painting with two-dimensional holy Christian figures having. Often the figures were also viewed from the side with subject size being determined more by theme than by spatial relationship within the art. Another thing to keep in mind when looking at the Middle Ages is that most of the population could not read, that churches, and art in the churches guided the people in worship. Painting, sculpture and stained glass were visual documentation that all people could understand in communicating the stories of the early Christain Church.
Church and state were essentially under the same control and only clergy and royal families could read and owned books. The invention of printing during the Renaissance would put books into the hands of the middle class. Narcissistic self-worship continues throughout western art and culture. Historians consider medieval Europe a deviation, as the realist form was replaced with a standardized, stylized one. Fundamentally, there was not much difference from Classical art, the image was still human and the image of God’s only the method of portrayal was different.
The medieval images reflected societal culture of the day, which was less rational than reason based as were the Greek/Romans. The end of the Middle Ages sometimes referred to as the High Middle ages was broken into two specific styles. The Romanesque which was from about 1050 to 1200 A.D.E. Romanesque sculptures, paintings, and architecture was modeled after the Greek and Romans. The style was symmetrical and well balanced typical classic appearance. The Gothic is the second style.
The movement began in France from about 1200 to the fifth century A.D.E. Artworks of this time have a linear, graceful, elegant quality in their sculpture, architecture, and paintings. It was more naturalistic than the Romanesque artwork The renaissance was the first period in Western history to give a specific name to them. Death, with the Black Plague and Crusades, and the corruption of both church and state during the Middle Ages brought on the desire for knowledge which lead to a rebirth of society in the Renaissance Era. During the Renaissance, the governmental structure of the smaller kingdoms grew in magnitude and potency.
Investigation and opposition for the influence of encountered acreage funded political holdings as the world expanded along with the information accumulation. Furthermore typical of the Renaissance was growth in knowledge of music, literature, math, science, art, and discoveries of classical history. Important dates for this era are as follow: 1378 Great Schism between rival popes create the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches; 1517 – Martin Luther posts his thesis on the Wittenberg Cathedral door which begins the Reformation and Protestantism. Art in Northern Europe abandon the realm of the church during the Reformation Protestants and discarded the church icons focusing on genre that dealt with the common settings/themes. Subject matter while the art and architecture in Southern Europe becomes more ostentatious and icons flourish. Classical antiquity abounds in artistic compositions during the Renaissance. The political and religious strife has become apparent as religious art gives way to more naturalistic genres.
Artists draw from the myths of the Greek and Roman eras, landscapes, and portrait painting is done along with religious art. However, the form and aliveness of the subject matter into tangible expression is a noted difference. Continuous narrative themes surfaced and depth and light were utilized in new and exciting ways. Donatello’s St. Mark sculpture is so life like it looks like it could walk right off the cathedral wall and Giotto’s The Lamenation in fresco show psychological and emotional reactions that have the same effect.
His use of dimension and depth was a precursor for future arts to follow. Giotto’s themes mirrored Plato’s theories of art while Leonardo de Vinci began Using Aristotle’s in the form of geometric and mathematical calculations in his art works. Baroque art differs from that of the Renaissance in various significant aspects. Renaissance art exemplified calm and reason and Baroque was violent and full of emotion and energy. Greater color contrast, more vivid bright colors, light and dark brings about a complexity not seen in the simplistic Renaissance artwork. The leading interpreter in this era was Bernini.
His theatrical styles of grand gestures bring an innovative look at the evolution of the human form from the ancient world’s crude compositions to believability. In fact, his subject is in ecstasy in his marble, gilt, and bronze statue of St. Teresa in ecstasy. Rococo an eighteen-century style, originating in reaction to the grandeur and massiveness of the Baroque era employed refined, elegant, and highly decorative forms. Although an extenuation of its preceding period Rococo is smaller in scale and color schemes are softer. Because the concepts of linear perspective and other technical skills had been discovered during the Renaissance artist could paint and sculpt very realistically, some of them started to paint very idealistic themes. Typically, these romantic pieces of art exemplify park like settings in a most wonderful and fictional manner.
As we enter the modern world we see art fragment or branch out into various schools of thought such as Neo-Classicism a continuation from the technically precise technology of the Renaissance, Impressionism, Abstract, Modern, Post modern. etc. New inventions or technology have a great affect on the way that artists think and emotions became important to the person creating art. Neo-Classicism is a European style of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The perfectionism of the Greek and Romans in representing the perfect body is evident in La Grande Odalisque; an oil on canvas painting by Jean Augusta Dominique Ingres. This era’s intent was to reproduce earlier classical ideologies as authentically as possible using the evolved techniques to perfect the works of art. In reaction to the Neo-classical movement, Romanticism arose.
The focus was on the emotional over the perfection of reason and spontaneous expression was highly prized. The stress on drama, turbulent emotions, and imagery in motion was a direct outcome of the revolution in France forty years earlier. Liberty Leading the People is filled with all of them. The sense of blurred motion is created flickering lights and confusion replicated the societal emotions of the time. Realism was the artists’ reaction to the two previous styles again mimicking the shift in the societal culture. Realism stood for what the eye could actually see.
Works of myths, imagination, beauty, and idolized subject matter were rejected as false. Their concerns were rooted in the present. Impressionism was a term first used by a journalist ridiculing a landscape by Monet. Basically he had it correct in that this group of artists had a common desire to capture the moment and the immediacy of visual impressions or spontaneity. Prime examples of this desire are depicted by Claude Monet and the way he wanted to capture Rouen Cathedral in different light and weather Two discoveries that affected the thinking of the Impressionists were the invention of photography and the opening of trade with the orient. Photography, which was invented in 1825 and became a constant by the 1850s, had the ability to capture the moment and freeze time rendered portrait painting almost unnecessary as a way to capture the subject for eternity.
Vanity and narcissism had a hay-day with photography. Oriental prints used genre themes and incorporated composition techniques that attracted the attention of the impressionistic artists. With the quality and quantity of photographic images and printing the common person could own and display images at a reasonable cost. During the 20th century artists began to look for way to be more expressive, sometimes to the point of reaction. For the artist emotion is everything and the interpretation is left to the viewer, many times with different reactions from different people. Art became a colorless topic with numerous questions and the leading inquiry was Is it Art? The Piazza San Marco, an oil on linen painting by Renoir is a series of blurred images and the human form is lost in the smudges. Even clearer images such, as La Lecture by Morisot where the human form of a young girl can be distinguished is still blurred and unclear. It is as if the movement wanted to wipe out humanity or blend it into the universal surroundings.
Expressionism, the artistic style that the artist seeks to display not reality, but emotions and responses. Typically, the art uses distortion, exaggeration, primitivism, and fantasy to evoke a response from the viewer. In 1911, a new group of German Expressionists opens the way towards abstraction with it experimentation and originality. It is Wassily Kandinsky, who is most often credited with painting the first Abstract picture, in 1910. Abstraction distorts the human form and makes it almost unascertainable. Cubism as can be seen in the George Braque painting of Picasso, to the left, the cubistic style demands that the pictorial elements be influenced by the intersecting of transparent cubes and cones emphasizing the two-dimensional surface of the picture plane. Cubism rejects the traditional techniques of perspective learned in the Renaissance Era and many times depicts numerous sides in the same view simultaneously.
Artists, such as Pablo Picasso, often began painting in the realistic or impressionistic style, but would spend part of their life exploring the techniques of cubism or abstraction. Because the rules of perspective had been historically learned and studied, artists such as the Dutch graphic artist, M.C. Escher, became most recognized for his spatial illusions of impossible situations and repeating geometric patterns where the illusion of depth was adjusted. Escher was a man studied and greatly appreciated by mathematicians and scientists because of his mathematically complex structures that require a second look. In simplicifation, close up, or minimizing art, the artist is getting rid of the entrapment of enumeration to give the observer a new and many times neglected view of common objects.
The close up technique used in the works of Georgia O’Keef many times is taken almost to the point of abstraction, but makes us aware of the loveliness in the parts of the whole flower, which was one of her favorite themes. Artists, such as, Andy Warhol gave us a new look at every day objects through repetition and Piet Mondrian or Paul Klee make us look again at basic colors and shapes. Non-Representational artist Jackson Pollock was painting abstractly with the drip and splash method in 1947. Instead of using the traditional easel he affixed his canvas to the floor or the wall and poured and dripped his paint from a can, manipulating it with sticks, trowels or knives and adding mixture of foreign matter. This method painting was supposed to result in a direct expression of the unconscious moods of the artist. Surrealism was a means of reuniting conscious and unconscious experience so completely that the world of dream and fantasy would be joined to the everyday rational world. Historically, while the method of depicting the human form has changed, the image has remained virtually constant as Plato said about Egyptian art for thousands of years. The healthy, trim, muscular form that represents the ideal period of the era.
There have been a few moments in history, such as the artistic works of Renoir and Rubens when a bloated figure was desirable. The evolution of the human form has been to perfect techniques to bring it to life not alter conceptions about the type of body artists have traditionally used to immortalize humanity. Arts and Paintings.