The Theory Of Evolution

.. f years before life evolved. There are horse-like hoofprints visible in the sesame Canyon rocks. This same phenomenon was discovered in the Soviet Union, also. Frequently fo! ssils have been found in the same rocks of land, marine and flying animals, all of which Darwin felt evolved at vastly different times(Lammerts,1987).

Finally, there are the apes, from which man evolved. Consider the Pilt down man, taught in text books for 40 years, but now universally acknowledged as a hoax. Or Nebraska Man, who was based on what later was found to be a pig’s tooth. The now infamous Louis Leakey went to great lengths to prove Darwin’s theory and make a name for himself. He “discovered” Ramapithecus, a handful of teeth and jaw fragments, and put them together incorrectly to resemble a human jaw. In 1978, more bones were discovered, and Ramapithecus was just an ape. Leakey also discovered “Skull 1470” which is definitely more human-like and yet older than Homoerectus and the Australopithecines.

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Perhaps this proves that man is older than his ancestors. Of course Leakey also discovered the very old Australopithecines, the most famous of which is “Lucy.” L! eakey thought she walked upright, but investigation by many others concluded that she did not, she swung from trees and is a type of extinct ape. Not a link, but an ape(Oxnard,1979). Eugene Dubo is discovered Java Man, and 40 years later admitted it was a gibbon, and he had with held parts of other bones to preclude identification. Recent studies of Neanderthal man show that, like Cro-Magnon and Heidelberg man, he was NOT stooped and apelike, but was affected by rickets and arthritis. They are men, and artists depiction of them as “ape-like” is unfounded and not supported by the evidence(Rensberger,1981). To support the evolution theory, it is necessary to assume the earth is hundreds of millions of years old.

The techniques used to show this include radiometric dating (Potassium-Argon, Rubidium-Strontium, and the uranium-Thorium-Lead methods). However, in over one-half of 800 published dates that were checked, there were major errors found in the methodology. Geology teaches that each rock strata and it’s fossils indicate vast “ages” of time, with the oldest and least evolved on the bottom. These “Index Fossils” of each strata are then used to determine the age of all similar plants and animals, based on the notio! n that they had to all have evolved at the same time. Geology also invariably dates rock strata formations by the content of the index fossils found with in each strata.

This is circular reasoning. Radio-carbon dating is based on the assumption that the ratio of carbon-14 in the atmosphere has always been what it is today, which is one carbon-14 atom for every trillion carbon-12 atoms. Carbon-14 weighs 14 atomic mass units, rather than the more common 12 atomic mass units. It is called radio carbon because it is radioactive and half of it will decay in about 5730 years to form nitrogen. Half of the remainder will decay in another 5730 year, etc.

Carbon-12 and 14 combine with oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide, which then spreads across the atmosphere. Plants absorb it in the same proportion as occurs in the atmosphere, (onecarbon-14 atom for each trillion carbon-12 atoms) and it then passes through the food chain to enter animal tissues, again in this same propo! rtion. When a plant or animal dies, it takes in no radio carbons, and the half-life(5730 years) clock starts ticking. The newer atomic accelerators can actually count the carbon-14 atoms in a fossil, rather than the less precise method of attempting to count the rare disintegration of carbon-14 atoms, which can be confused with other types of disintegration. Eleven of the earliest human remains have been dated at less than 5000 radiocarbon years, using the newer technique. (Taylor, 1985).

Brown(1989) states that the Torah, the Koran and the Bible all describe a worldwide flood, and this flood would change the ratio of radiocarbon-14 to carbon-12 because there would be no forests or plants to recycle carbon dioxide with the atmosphere. With less carbon of both kinds to dilute the carbon-14 that forms in the upper atmosphere (currently at the rate of about 21 pounds per year), the ratio of carbon-14 would increase. Also, the oceans and the atmosphere exchange huge amounts ! of carbon dioxide so as to maintain a balance. A radiocarbon year today could very well be only a year after the flood. There is considerable archaeological evidence indicating that Noah’s Ark does exist, including ancient writings by Josephus, and Berosus of the Chaldeans.

Marco Polo referred to the Ark as being in greater Armenia and, about 1856, three skeptical British scientists and two Armenian guides supposedly found it but refused to publicize the fact. Years later, one of the guides and one scientist independently reported the finding. In 1876 British scholar Sir James Bryce found 2,000 feet above the timberline on Mount Ararat, a piece of hand-tooled wood, four feet long, which he thought was from the Ark. In 1883, a group of Turkish commissioners came upon the Ark, and described the interior. This was possible because of an unusually warm summer which caused the Ark to project out of the surrounding ice.

In 1902, Armenian Georgie Hagopian and his uncle ex! amined the Ark. In 1972, shortly before his death, he tape-recorded a detailed testimony. Several Russians and Turks have reported seeing it and, in 1943, American soldier Ed Davis was stationed in Iran, and he saw it. He reports that Lourd tribesmen protect it and have removed cage doors and other items from it. George Greene, a geologist, took photos of the two parts of the Ark (it was broken into two main pieces) in 1954 from a helicopter.

U-2 pilots in the late 1950’s have seen it. In 1973 a Turkish soldier took Ed Behling to a ledge that over looked the Ark. All of the sight accounts describe the same size and dimensions, and several TV documentaries have shown aerial photographs(Shockey, 1986). To date, the major impediment to scientific exploration is that Turkey is vehemently non-Christian, and they refuse to let Westerners into the area, nor do they care about climbing a 15,000 foot ice-covered mountain themselves. Dr.

Walter Brown(1989), who holds a Ph.D. In ! Engineering from M.I.T., says there are many earth features whose origin is controversial and involves numerous hypotheses and unexplainable aspects. “Each of these features appear to be best explained as direct consequences of a cataclysmic flood, whose waters burst forth from worldwide, subterranean, and interconnected chambers, with an energy release exceeding the explosion of ten billion hydrogen bombs. It would cause the rapid formation of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge, ocean trenches, salt domes, submarine canyons, the Grand Canyon, coal and oil formations, volcanoes, and earthquakes, glaciers, over thrusts, continental shelves and slopes, and magnetic patterns on the ocean floor.”(Brown,1989). Darwin himself expressed so many doubts about his theory, and yet for almost 150 years it has been considered the basic foundation – the Gospel – of the scientific community.

Thousands of text books have been written to present evolution as factual, with only a few tiny, as-yet-undiscovered gaps, and every sci! ence educator spends hours expounding on it. Why do those who are scientists say that they only believe in provable, measurable, experimentally repeatable facts, and yet put so much credence in such a flimsy theory, when it is becoming increasingly more difficult to defend it on any front? REFERENCES Brown, W.T.(1989). In the Beginning. Phoenix: Center for Scientific Creation. Darwin, C.(1927). The Origin of Species.(6th ed.).

New York: Macmillan. Fix, W.R.(1984). The Bone Peddlers: Selling Evolution. New York: Macmillan. Gould, S.J.(1977) The Return of Hopeful Monsters. Natural History, 86, 6-7, 23. Gray, G.(1980).

Student Project “Rattles” Science Fair Judges. Issues and Answers,(12),3. Kay, M. & Colbert, E.H.(1965). Stratigraphy and Life History.

New York: John Wiley & Sons. Lammerts, W.E.(1987).Recorded Instances of Wrong-Order Formations or Presumed Overthrusts in the United States. Creation Research Society Quarterly, 6, 46. Oxnard, C.E.(1979).Human Fossils: New Views of Old Bones. The American Biology Teacher, 41, 5, 273.

Patterson, C.(1981). Prominent British Scientist Challenges Evolution Theory.(Videotape).Washington D.C.: American Museum of Natural History. Raup, D.M.(1979). Conflicts between Darwin and Paleontology. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin,50, (l), 25. Rensberger, B.(1981). Facing the Past.

Science 81,(10), 49. Salisbury, F.B.(1969). Natural Selection and the Complexity of the Gene. Nature, 224, 10/25, 342. Shockey, D.(1986). Agri-Dagh(Mount Ararat): The Painful Mountain. Taylor, G.R.(1983).

The Great Evolution Mystery. New York: Harper & Row. Wald, G.(1954,August). The Origin of Species. Scientific American, 190,46. Walton, J.C.(1977). Organization and the Origin of Life.

Origins, 4, (1), 30-31. .