.. . That person was usually Joseph Goebbles. Naturally, no Jews, non-Aryans, or any of Hitlers adversaries were not allowed to join. Thus, without a license to practice their businesses, all artists, writers, publishers, producers, or directors could not work or do any business in their field. Also along with those quotas, came the prohibition of all Jewish newspapers, radio, and cinema.
Part of Hitlers master plan was to have his nation to become the most powerful country in the world; an Aryan nation, that is. Without a doubt, that requires more Aryans. As a part of this theory, the fuhrer, with much assistance form Goebbles, began a new campaign. This time, it was aimed at women. Hitler wanted to encourage good health and child birth among women. There were two things that constituted this: having women take on a nursing, house-wife role and for them to make time for activity, such as sports. However, it would not be easy to entice women to compromise on giving up what they considered to be a trim figure. Hitler needed to replace the traditional fit look for women with a more substantial motherly looking image (Seymour Rossel, The Holocaust: The World and the Jews, 1933-1945 84).
Workers in the arts industry were urged to use such women in their work. Hitler even granted an award to any German woman who gave birth to six or more children. SS troops were given instructions to marry blond-haired, blue-eyed women who had not yet received the Reich sports award. The family life campaign soon branched off to another important issue, education. For if Germany were to be flooded with Aryan children they had to get the “right” education and to be taught by the “right” teachers: Nazi teachers.
Therefore, the German school systems discharged all Jewish and non-Nazi teachers. At that point, 97% of the teachers in Germany belonged to the Nazi Teachers Association. Textbooks and childrens books, as well, had heavy military and anti-Semitic overtones. A modern bomber can carry 1,800 incendiaries. How long is the path along which it can distribute these bombs if it drops a bomb every second at a speed of 250 kilometers per hour? How far apart are the craters? -The New Order, p. 103 Some childrens books even intimidated Nazi members, because they were so biased that they were horrifying.
Perhaps the author that best exemplifies this was the notoriously relentless and obsessive anti-Semite, Julius Streicher. Born in Fleinhausen, Bavaria in 1885, Streicher was a German politician and journalist. He was one of the earliest and most extremist members of the Nazi party. In fact, he even participated in Hitlers 1923 rebellion. He is best known, though, for his notoriously rabid anti-Semitism displayed in his books and newspapers.
Some of is works include The Poisonous Mushroom, a childrens book, and “Der Strmer,” a Nazi newspaper. While his works appalled even some Nazis, Hitler was intrigued by his “skillful and amusing campaign.” With the campaign aimed at children, the Nazis integrated both anti-Semitic ideology and encouraged children to join the Hitler Youth, for boys, and the League of German Girls, for girls. Indeed, the enrollment rate was very high, but the storm of children joining the two youth organizations were not all going for their hatred toward Jews. Rather, many saw it as a good opportunity to go camping, make friends (activities which the to organizations did, in fact, often do); in a way, the equivalent of our Boy/Girl Scouts of America Organization. Billboards, poster, leaflets, and flyers were everywhere. Some were aimed at the adult population, some at children.
Most commonly, they were to urge the public to join Hitlers crusade, for there was a job and a place for everybody. The Nazis offered men jobs in Hitlers army. If they were inexperienced, they offered training camps, seminars, and classes, in which they were taught everything from military maneuvers to how to identify a Jew. As effective of the other forms of Nazi propaganda were, the best results came from the media: newspapers, radio, and film. Control of the media was the key to gaining control of the peoples minds.
Joseph Goebbles took the first step to assuming full control of the news-wire services. He then merged the different wire-services into the German News Bureau. This allowed him to control the distribution of news at its source. Now that the Nazis had full control of the news circulation in Germany, they began making laws pertaining to it. For example, in 1933, Goebbles instituted the Editors Law.
This stated that all newspapers had to go through his ministry. Accordingly, the editors were responsible for every picture and word in their publication, and if Goebbles did not like what was being printed, the editors would be punished. Although, they would most commonly lose their jobs, Goebbles, on occasion, would have the person sent to a concentration camp. His regulations on new circulation so limited the liberty of the reporter, that daily press conferences were often held. There, Goebbles would dictate what should be written in the article and how it should look. Unfortunately for the Nazis, mu ch of the population of Germany stopped reading newspapers, altogether, for they already knew what would be written. Since Goebbles realized he could not brainwash the people just through the newspaper, he then took over radio communication.
By making sure stores kept a plentiful stock of inexpensive radios, a record seventy percent of German families owned at least one radio. If in the event that a family did not own one, the Nazis encouraged gathering in groups at home, at work, and at eating places to listen to the broadcasts. With over a quarter of a typical days broadcasting time being reserved solely for Nazi propaganda, the people became very vulnerable to what they heard. To be sure not one person was without the privilege of listening to daily broadcastings, the Nazis had loud speakers installed all over the country. Goebbles also seized control of the cinemas. Still a fairly new concept, motion pictures were very popular among the Germans.
The Nazis began making both movies and documentaries with extremely anti-Semitic messages. There were documentaries that were merely intended for the glorification of the Nazis, while other were tasteless, explicit movies based on mere blatant lies and biases produced by the Nazis and other anti-Semitic organizations. Some were so anti-Semitic that the actors requested that a telegraph be sent out publicizing that they themselves were not really Jewish. Despite the horrifying motion-picture campaigning, countless numbers attended these films. By now, the German population was predominantly anti-Semitic.
Stage one of the Nazis plan was done. However, Nazi missionaries began coming over to the United States. Although quickly deported, they left behind their ideas. Organizations such as the Christian Front and the German-American Bund were formed and strongly supported the Nazis. Newsletters and leaflets were being mass produced throughout the country. Luckily the majority of Americans retained their morals and acceptance of Jews.
In their quest for both world and racial domination, the Nazis covered all possible territory/subject-matter, and all possible means of accomplishing their goal. They monopolized and strictly monitored all branches of the communications and media industry. By doing this, the Nazis only allowed the people to hear what they wanted them to hear, and nothing more. In the midst of a major economic depression, the German people were both vulnerable and desperate, and the unemployment rate was very high. Thus, many people had nothing else to do beside listen to the radio and read the newspaper.
Naturally, there was no commercial or industrial market, almost everything fitting into those two categories was failing, so it was not difficult to take over. Hitlers plan was working very well. Reflecting on the manner in which the term “propaganda” is used in this paper, it could be understandable why one could see the word as a negative term. Even though the dictionary defines “propaganda” as publicity to either further or damage ones cause, I am unable to picture myself defining Hitlers publicity scheme as merely marketing, promotion, or advertising. Rather, I see it as a disgusting form of “disinformation” (See, p.
1). In conclusion, even though the word, “propaganda,” can be used in reference to either positive or negative campaigning, it is how we have come to, most often, identify ideology which we do not approve of or think not to be true. Works Cited Ausubel, Nathan. Pictorial History of the Jewish People. New York: Crown Publishers, 1953. Goldhagen, Daniel.
Hitlers Willing Executioners. New York: Random House, 1996. Goldhagen, Daniel. Personal Interview. 25 December 1996.
“Holocaust.” World Book Encyclopedia. Http://haven.ios.com/~kimel19/index.html#index. Internet. AT&T Worldnet Service, Vrs. 3.0. Windows 95, disk. Levin, Nora.
The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry. New York: Schocken Books, 1973 Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. Computer software. Microsoft Corporation, 1996. Windows 95, 6.39 MB, CD-ROM. Rossel, Seymour. The Holocaust: The World and the Jews, 1933-1945.
West Orange: Behrman House, 1992.