Venezuelan Immigration How did independence politically affect the Creole class in Venezuela? I. Venezuelan independence split the Creole class into two political factions, liberals, and conservatives. In addition, independence motivated many Creoles to remove themselves from politics and pass their power to local caudillos, or soldiers. (Williamson 233-234) (Greene 105-106) A. During Venezuelan’s independence movement, opposing viewpoints of two of the colonies most influential revolutionary leaders sparked disagreements within the Creole class. 1.
Simon Bolivar sought to completely liberate Venezuela and the rest of South America from monarchy. He also wanted more social classes in Venezuela to participate in politics. 2. San Martin believed Venezuela should break away from Spain, however, he advocated a different governmental structure after independence, then that of Simon Bolivar. a) Thought that a European monarch was needed in Venezuela in order to maintain stability and power over the lower classes.
3. During the Venezuelan independence movement, both parties maintained their general opinions of a post-independent government. They modified their ideas only slightly. a) Both parties also gathered a group of supporters who held to their views steadfast. B. After independence, the political disagreements between Bolivar and Miranda became stronger and more apparent.
1. After independence, Venezuela’s revolutionary leaders slowly removed themselves from politics. However, their supporters continued to defend their political views. 2. The opposing groups soon formed informal political parties that divided the Creole class into conservatives and liberals.
The political ideas of these groups contrasted greatly. a) Conservatives sought to “rebuild as much of the old order as possible so as to secure their authority over the lower classes” (Williamson 234) b) Liberals desired to “create a modern liberal state without prejudice to any of its citizens” (Williamson 235) C. Independence caused many Creole citizens and revolutionary leaders to remove themselves from politics. 1. The violent independence movements in Venezuela had repelled many Creoles from politics in general. a) Discussed or now uninterested in politics, many Creoles returned to their haciendas to continue their lives as landowners.
b) Lives as landowners, and not politicians, offered Creoles the ability to focus on themselves without worrying about the needs and wants of a nation. c) Simon Bolivar, the most famous revolutionary in Venezuela, removed himself from politics a few years before his death of tuberculosis. He felt the quarreling between Creoles signified that he had failed as a political leader. 2. Creoles transferred their political power to the caudillos, or the soldiers in Venezuela.
a) Independence ultimately resulted in a loss of political power in the Creole class. Why did the Indians in Venezuela become more poverty-stricken after independence? I. The Indians of Venezuela became more poverty-stricken after independence because of increased economic demand in the late 1850’s. Therefore, the caste system of the Venezuela was abolished in order to exploit the Indians more intensely. (Williamson 244-245) A. Before colonial independence, the caste system of Venezuelan colony allowed the Creoles to continually exploit the Indians to benefit themselves.
1. Within the class system, the Creoles created a separate social group to control the labor of the Indians a) The Republic of the Indians served as a special economic recourse for the Creoles b) Wealth generated by this republic was used to fund the economic needs of the Creoles. (1) The economic exploitation of the Indians remained constant before and during the independence movement. B. After independence Creole demands on Indian labor receded.
1. Venezuela’s economy started to stabilize itself. a) Venezuela benefited from increased trade with other nations, especially those of Europe. b) The Creoles could gain wealth to support their economic needs from the expanded trade with European nations. (1) European nations offered competitive prices in Venezuela. C. In the late 1850’s, economic demand on Indians increased.
This caused them to lose their land and be forced into greater exploitation. 1. The 1850’s in Venezuela brought about new discussions of social reforms within the country. a) From these discussions, liberals in the country decided that Venezuelan society should be reformed so all citizens contribute equally to the country. b) The Creoles in Venezuela took advantage of this decision.
They sought to use the social reforms to greatly exploit the Indians of the country. (1) With the destruction of the Republic of the Indians, natives could be made to support society to the greatest extent by increased labor. (a) The private lands of the Republic of the Indians would also be divided among the people of Venezuela, with Creoles receiving the majority of this resource. (2) The Creoles would use the past suppressions of the Indians to further exploit them, even in a time of desired social equality. 2. The social forms in Venezuela in the 1850’s left the Indians in a worst social and economic situation than before independence.
a) The Creoles were responsible for the social and economic degradation of the Indians. (1) Creoles took advantage of the Indian’s lack of political experience, and their past social positions, to exploit them for personal benefit. (2) The actions of the Creoles left the Indians without personal property, and under greater control of the Creoles. Work Cited Greene, Carol. Simon Bolivar. Chicago, ILL: Childrens Press, 1989.
Williamson, Edwin. The Penguin History of Latin America. London, England: The Penguin Press, 1992. Bibliography Greene, Carol. Simon Bolivar. Chicago, ILL: Childrens Press, 1989. Williamson, Edwin. The Penguin History of Latin America. London, England: The Penguin Press, 1992.